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Tropidoclonion lineatum (HALLOWELL, 1856)

IUCN Red List - Tropidoclonion lineatum - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Natricinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesLined Snake
lineatum: Northern Lined Snake
mertensi: Mertens` Lined Snake
texanum: Texas Lined Snake 
SynonymMicrops lineatus HALLOWELL 1856: 241
Tropidoclonion lineatum — COPE 1860: 76
Storeria lineata — GARMAN 1884: 32
Tropidoclonion lineatum — STEJNEGER 1891: 504
Tropidoclonion lineatum iowae CALL 1891
Thamnophis lineatus — BURT 1935
Tropidoclonion lineatum — GRANT 1937
Tropidoclonion lineatum annectens RAMSEY 1953
Tropidoclonion lineatum texanum RAMSEY 1953
Tropidoclonion lineatum mertensi SMITH 1965: 3
Tropidoclonion lineatum — CONANT & COLLINS 1991: 173
Tropidoclonion lineatum — CROTHER 2000
Tropidoclonion lineatum — CROTHER et al. 2012
Tropidoclonion lineatum — WALLACH et al. 2014: 746 
DistributionC USA (incl. Illinois, Kansas, Oklahoma, Nebraska, Texas, New Mexico)

annectens: NE Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas; Type locality: Tulsa, Oklahoma.

iowae: USA (Iowa); Type locality: USA: Des Moines, Polk County, Iowa; 1888.

lineatum: NW Texas, W Oklahoma; Type locality: Kansas. Restricted to vicinity of Kansas City, Kansas, USA fide K.P. Schmidt (1953: 176) and to the vicinity of Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, USA fide L.W. Ramsay (1953: 9).

mertensi: USA (New Mexico); Type locality: Watrous, San Miguel County, New Mexico.

texanum: Texas, Oklahoma; Type locality: F.W. Allen ranch 13 miles south of Bertram, Burnet Co.  
TypesHolotype: ANSP 5922
Holotype: KU 30005 [annectens]
Lectotype: IUMNH 53022 (formerly CMNH 219) [iowae]
Holotype: TNHC (given as Texas Natural History Collection, University of Texas) [texanum]
Holotype: UCM 13478 (University of Colorado Museum), adult male [mertensi] 
CommentSubspecies: no subspecies are recognized by TENNANT 2003, STEBBINS 2003 or BOUNDY et al. 2012, so no subspecies are listed here.

Type species: Microps lineatus HALLOWELL 1856: 241 is the type species of the genus Tropidoclonion COPE 1860. 
EtymologyNamed after Latin “linea”, meaning stripe or line. 
  • Bergman, Enoch; Hill, Ben; Montgomery, Chad; Hobert, Justin; Boback, Scott; Mackessy, Stephen P. 1997. Geographic Distribution. Tropidoclonion lineatum lineatum. Herpetological Review 28 (1): 53 - get paper here
  • Blair, Kathleen B.;Smith, Hobart M.;Chiszar, David 1993. Tropidoclonion lineatum (lined snake). USA: Texas. Herpetological Review 24 (3): 110-111 - get paper here
  • Blanchard, Frank N.;Force, Edith R. 1930. The age of attainment of sexual maturity in the lined snake, Tropidoclonion lineatum (Hallowell). Bull. Antivenin Inst. America 3 (4): 96-98
  • Brown, Lauren E.; Funk, Richard S.; Moll, Don; Tucker, John K. 1975. Distributional notes on reptiles in Illinois. Herpetological Review 6 (3): 78-79 - get paper here
  • Burbrink FT, Futterman I. 2019. Female‐ biased gape and body-size dimorphism in the New World watersnakes (tribe: Thamnophiini) oppose predictions from Rensch's rule. Ecol Evol. 00:1–10
  • Burt, Charles E. 1935. Further records of the ecology and distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the middle west. American Midland Naturalist 16 (3): 311-336 - get paper here
  • Call, R.E. 1891. On a new serpent from Iowa. Amer. J. Sci. (4) 41: 297-299. - get paper here
  • Casper, G. S. and P. Kleinhenz 2016. Geographic Distribution: Tropidoclonion lineatum (Lined Snake). Herpetological Review 47(3): 429. - get paper here
  • Collins, J.T. & Collins, S.L. 2009. A pocket guide to Kansas snakes, 2nd ed. Great Plains Nature Center, Wichita, 69 pp.
  • Collins, J.T. & Collins, S.L. 2010. A pocket guide to Kansas snakes, 3rd ed. Great Plains Nature Center, Wichita, 69 pp.
  • Conant,R. 1978. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern and Central North America, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Conant,R. & Collins,J.T. 1991. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Eastern/Central North America, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin (Boston/New York), xx + 450 p.
  • Cope, E.D. 1860. Catalogue of Colubridae in the Museum of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 1860: 74-79 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Degenhardt, William G.; C. W. Painter, and A. H. Price 1996. Amphibians and reptiles of New Mexico. Univ. New Mexico Press, 431 pp.
  • Dixon, James R. 2000. Amphibians and reptiles of Texas, second edition. Texas A&M University Press, 421 pp.
  • Ernst, C.H., & Barbour, R.W. 1989. Snakes of eastern North America. George Mason Univ. Press, Fairfax, VA 282 pp.
  • Funk, Richard S.;Tucker, John K. 1978. Variation in a large brood of lined snakes, Tropidoclonion lineatum (Reptilia, Serpentes, Colubridae). Journal of Herpetology 12 (1): 115-117 - get paper here
  • Garman,Samuel 1884. The reptiles and batrachians of North America. Mem. Mus. comp. Zool, Cambridge (Massachusetts), 8 (3): xxxiv + 185 pp. [1883] [CNAH reprint 10] - get paper here
  • Grant, Chapman 1937. Herpetological notes from Central Kansas. American Midland Naturalist 18 (3): 370-372 - get paper here
  • Hallowell, E. 1856. Notice of a collection of reptiles from Kansas and Nebraska, presented to the Academy of Natural Sciences by Dr. Hammond, U.S.A. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 8: 238-253 - get paper here
  • Hathcock, C D; Cox, S & Stuart, J N 2018. Tropidoclonion lineatum (Lined Snake) Habitat/Elevation. Herpetological Review 49 (3): 558-559 - get paper here
  • LeClere, Jeff 1993. Snakes of Minnesota: Lined snake (Tropidoclonion lineatum lineatum). Newsletter of the Minnesota Herpetological Society 13 (11): 10-11
  • Lynch, J.D. 1985. Annotated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Nebraska. Nebraska Acad. of Sci., Lincoln, Trans. 13: 33-57.
  • Manning, Glenn J., Thomas J. Belford, Brad Birchfield, Jeremy R. Sloan and James U. Van Dyke. 2015. Geographic Distribution: Tropidoclonion lineatum lineatum (northern lined snake). Herpetological Review 46 (4): 578 - get paper here
  • Maslin, T. Paul; Koster, William J. 1954. Tropidoclonion lineatum lineatum (Hallowell) in New Mexico. Herpetologica 10: 172 - get paper here
  • Newsom, Christopher. 2013. Geographic Distribution: Tropidoclonion lineatum (lined snake). Herpetological Review 44 (2): 276 - get paper here
  • O'Connor, B. J., A. J. Forrester and K. Geluso 2016. Tropidoclonion lineatum (Lined Snake) fire mortality. Herpetological Review 47(3): 487. - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Ramsey, L.W. 1953. The lined snake, Tropidoclonion lineatum (Hallowell). Herpetologica 9 (1): 7-24 - get paper here
  • Schmidt, Karl P. 1953. A Checklist of North American Amphibians and Reptiles. 6th ed. American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, Chicago, 280 pp. - get paper here
  • Scott, N. J., Jr. 1996. Evolution and management of the North American grassland herpetofauna. In: D. M. Finch editor. Ecosystem disturbance and wildlife conservation in western grasslands: a symposium proceedings. General Technical Report RM-GTR-285. U.S. Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, Colorado, pp. 40-53
  • Smith, Hobart M. 1965. Two new colubrid snakes from the United States and Mexico. Journal of the Ohio Herpetological Society 5 (1): 1-4 - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M.;Chiszar, David 1994. Variation in the lined snake (Tropidoclonion lineatum) in northern Texas. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 30 (1): 6-14 - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M.;Chiszar, David 1994. Tropidoclonion lineatum (lined snake). USA: Colorado. Herpetological Review 25 (1): 35 - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M.;Leonard, Arthur B. 1934. Distributional records of reptiles and amphibians in Oklahoma. American Midland Naturalist 15: 190-196 - get paper here
  • Smith, Hobart M.;Pague, Christopher A.;Chiszar, David 1996. A brood of lined snakes (Tropidoclonion lineatum) from southeastern Colorado. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 32 (1): 24-27 - get paper here
  • Stebbins, R.C. 2003. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, 545 pp.
  • Stejneger, L. 1891. Notes on some North American snakes. Proc. US Natl. Mus. 14 (876): 501-505 - get paper here
  • Tennant, A. 2003. Snakes of North America - Eastern and Central Regions, revised edition. Lone Star Books, 605 pp.
  • Tennant, A. & Bartlett, R.D. 2000. Snakes of North America - Eastern and Central Regions. Gulf Publishing, Houston, TX, 588 pp.
  • Tye, S.P. & Geluso, K. 2017. Geographic Distribution: Tropidoclonion lineatum (Lined Snake). Herpetological Review 48 (4): 817 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Werler, John E. & James R. Dixon 2000. Texas Snakes. University of Texas Press, 544 pages
  • Wiese, J.D. & Caven, A.J. 2017. Tropidoclonion lineatum (Lined Snake) Thamnophis sirtalis (Common Gartersnake) Refugia and mortality. Herpetological Review 48 (4): 868-869 - get paper here
  • Wilgers, D.J.; Horne, E.A.; Sandercock, B.K. & Volkmann, A.W. 2006. Effects of rangeland management on community dynamics of the herpetofauna of the Tall-grass Prairie [Flint Hills, Kansas/Oklahoma]. Herpetologica 62 (4): 378-388 - get paper here
  • Winter, E.M. & Geluso, K. 2017. Geographic Distribution: Tropidoclonion lineatum (Lined Snake). Herpetological Review 48 (4): 817 - get paper here
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