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Tupinambis teguixin (LINNAEUS, 1758)

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Higher TaxaTeiidae, Tupinambinae, Gymnophthalmoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Common Golden Tegu, Black Tegu, Golden Tegu
G: Schwarz-Weisser Teju, Bänderteju
Portuguese: Jacuaru, Jacuraru, Jacuruaru, Lagartiu, Lagarto, Tegu, Teiú, Teiú-Açu, Tejo, Tejo-D'água, Teju, Tejuaçu 
SynonymLacerta Teguixin LINNAEUS 1758: 208
Seps marmoratus LAURENTI 1768: 59
Laacerta tupinambis LACÉPÈDE 1788
Lacerta monitor — SHAW & NODDER 1790: plate 21
Ameiua Teguixin — MEYER 1795: 29 (in error)
Lacerta monitor LATREILLE 1801: 220
Tupinambis monitor DAUDIN 1802: 20
Agama teguixin — LINK 1807: 58
Monitor meriani BLAINVILLE 1816
Monitor (Tutor) americanus GOLDFUSS 1820: 168
Teius monitor — WIED 1824
Tupinambis nigropunctatus SPIX 1825: 18
Monitor teguixin FITZINGER 1826
Podinema teguixin WAGLER 1830
Lacerta Teguixin — CUVIER 1831: 113
Tupinambidibus Daudini — RANZONI 1836 (synonymy unclear)
Teius teguixin — GRAY 1838: 276
Salvator nigropunctatus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 90
Teius nigropunctatus — GRAY 1845: 16
Teius teguexim — BATES 1864: 233
Podicnema teguixin — BRÜHL 1886
Tejus teguexin [sic] — DOLLO 1884: 68
Tejus tequexin [sic] — COPE 1885: 189
Tupinambis teguixin — BOULENGER 1885: 335
Tupinambis nigropunctatus — BOULENGER 1885: 337
Tupinambis nigropunctatus — ANDERSSON 1900: 12
Tupinambis tegnixin [sic] — MÜLLER 1912: 24
Tupinambis teguixin — PETERS et al. 1970: 272
Tupinambis teguixin nigropunctatus — MÜLLER 1971: 24
Tupinambis teguixin nigropunctatus — MERTENS 1972
Tupinambis teguixin — PRESCH 1973: 741 (part?)
Tupinambis nigropunctatus — HOOGMOED & LESCURE 1975
Tupinambis teguixin — DUELLMAN 1978: 223
Tupinambis nigropunctatus — RESE 1983
Tupinambis teguixin — RESE 1983
Tupinambis teguixin — CEI 1993
Tupinambis nigropunctatus — SCHWENK 1994
Tupinambis teguixin — DIRKSEN & DE LA RIVA 1999
Tupinambis teguixin — MCNISH 2011
Tupinambis teguixim — SANTOS et al. 2011 (in error)
Tupinambis teguixin — HARVEY et al. 2012 
DistributionColombia, Venezuela (Cojedes), Isla Margarita, Tobago, Ecuador, Brazil (Amazonas, Acre, Amapa, Goias, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Para, Rondonia, Roraima, Rio Grande do Sul, Bahia, Ceará, Piauí), Peru, Trinidad, N Argentina (Buenos Aires, La Pampa, San Luis, Córdoba), Bolivia (Beni, Cochabamba, Pando, Santa Cruz), Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana

Type locality: “Indiis”  
TypesLectotype: UUZM (= ZMUU) 13 (Presch, 1973)
Lectotype: ZSM 629/0, male, designation by Hoogmoed & Gruber (1983) [nigropuncatus] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (subfamily): Of characters we examined, the Tupinambinae are the only living teiids with complete caudal annuli alternating with annuli divided dorsally and a gap of granular scales separating femoral from abdominal pores. They lack circumorbital scales or have 1–3/1–3 circumorbitals restricted to the posterior border of the fourth supraocular. Other characters likely to be diagnostic of the Tupinambinae but assessed for relatively few Teiinae include synapomorphies identified by Presch (1974a) and Sullivan and Estes (1997): short interclavicular median process, second ceratobranchial absent, and postfrontal not in contact with jugal. 
CommentType species: Tupinambis monitor DAUDIN 1802 is the type species of the genus Tupinambis DAUDIN 1802. Tupinambis is also the type species of the subfamily Tupinambinae BONAPARTE 1831 (not established by ESTES et al. 1988 as is often cited; see Costa et al. 2016 for historical details).

Distribution: not in Uruguay (M. Hoogmoed, pers. comm., 19 Feb 2013). Not in Panama fide LOTZKAT 2015 (pers. comm., 23 Dec 2015); see map in Silva et al. 2018.

Nomenclature: The name T. teguixin was for a long time applied for the species here named T. merianae, while the species here under discussion was called T. nigropunctatus. For a detailed discussion of nomenclature see Avila-Pires (1995). 
EtymologyEtymology (genus): The generic name Tupinambis is a masculine Latin noun in the nominative singular apparently referring to the Tupinambá indigenous tribe, one of several Tupi ethnic groups that inhabited Brazil at the time of the conquest. 
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  • Wied-Neuwied, M. 1824. Verzeichniss der Amphibien, welche im zweyten Bande der Naturgeschichte Brasiliens vom Prinz Max von Neuwied werden beschrieben werden. Isis von Oken 14: 661—673 [columns] - get paper here
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