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Typhlops jamaicensis (SHAW, 1802)

IUCN Red List - Typhlops jamaicensis - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaTyphlopidae (Typhlopinae), Typhlopoidea, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Jamaican Blindsnake, Jamaica Worm Snake 
SynonymAnguis Jamaicensis SHAW 1802: 588
Meditoria nasuta GRAY 1845: 139
Anilios leachii GRAY 1845: 135
Typhlops jamaicensis — COCHRAN 1924
Typhlops jamaicensis — PARKER 1933: 154
Typhlops jamaicensis — SCHWARTZ & HENDERSON 1991: 650
Typhlops jamaicensis — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 105
Typhlops jamaicensis — KORNILIOS et al. 2013
Typhlops jamaicensis — HEDGES et al. 2014
Typhlops jamaicensis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 763 

Type locality: “Jamaica” (Anguis Jamaicensis Shaw 1802)  
TypesNeotype: KU, designated by ICZN OPINION 2323.
Holotype: BMNH 1946.1.10.45. [Meditoria nasuta Gray 1845]
Syntypes: BMNH 1946.1.12.5 & 1946.1.10.65. [Anilios leachii Gray 1845] 
DiagnosisDESCRIPTION: Maximum TL 445 mm; TL/taillength 27-38 in males, 37-44 in females; middorsal scales 379-448; scale rows 22-22, rarely 22-20; head shape ogival' somewhat flattened; rostral broad in dorsal aspect, parallel, oval, or tapered, flared on apex, no labial flare; postoculars 2, occasionally 1 or 3. Coloration bicolor with medium to dark brown dorsal pigmentation, dropping out abruptly along a midlateralline (Schwartz & Henderson 1991: 650). 
CommentFor illustrations see Ruthven and Gaige, 1935; Thomas, 1976.

distribution: The type locality “Berbice, Guyana” is erroneous.

Anguis Jamaicensis SHAW 1802 has been considered a replacement name for Amphisbaena subargentea Browne, 1756 which is pre-Linnaean and thus not available. 
EtymologyNamed after the type locality. 
  • Cochran, D. 1924. Typhlops lumbricalis and related forms. J. Washington Acad. Sci. 14 (8): 174-177
  • Domínguez, M. and R. E. Díaz. 2011. Case 3527 - Anguis lumbricalis Linnaeus, 1758 and Anguis jamaicencis Shaw, 1802 (currently Typhlops lumbricalis and Typhlops jamaicensis) (Reptilia, Serpentes): proposed conservation of usage of the specific names by the designation of neotypes for b Bull. Zool. Nomenclature 68 (3):197-203 - get paper here
  • Evans, H.E. 1955. The osteology of a worm snake, Typhlops jamaicensis (SHAW). Anatomical Record 122:381-396 - get paper here
  • Grant, C. 1940. The herpetology of Jamaica Il. The reptiles. Bull. Inst. Jamaica., Sci. Ser. 1: 61-148.
  • Gray, J. E. 1845. Catalogue of the specimens of lizards in the collection of the British Museum. Trustees of die British Museum/Edward Newman, London: xxvii + 289 pp. - get paper here
  • Hedges, S. B. 1989. Geographic protein variation in the Jamaican blind snake, Typhlops jamaicensis (Serpentes: Typhlopidae). Carib. J. Sci. 25:93-96 - get paper here
  • Hedges, S.B., Marion, A.B., Lipp, K.M., Marin, J. & Vidal, N. 2014. A taxonomic framework for typhlopid snakes from the Caribbean and other regions (Reptilia, Squamata). Caribbean Herpetology 49: 1–61 - get paper here
  • Hilgenhof, R. J. 1998. Eine herpetologische Reise nach Nordost - Jamaika unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der Gattung Anolis Daudin, 1802 - Teil II. Sauria 20 (3): 3-10 - get paper here
  • ICZN 2013. OPINION 2323 (Case 3527) Anguis jamaicensis Shaw, 1802 (currently Typhlops jamaicensis; Reptilia, Serpentes): specific name conserved. Bull. Zool. Nomenclature 70 (3): 212-213 - get paper here
  • Kornilios, P.; S. Giokas, P. Lymberakis, R. Sindaco 2013. Phylogenetic position, origin and biogeography of Palearctic and Socotran blind-snakes (Serpentes: Typhlopidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 68 (1): 35–41 - get paper here
  • Legler, J.M. 1959. A new blind snake (genus Typhlops) from Cuba. Herpetologica 15 (2): 105-112 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Rieppel, O.; Kley, N.J.; Maisano, J.A. 2009. Morphology of the Skull of the White-Nosed Blindsnake, Liotyphlops albirostris (Scolecophidia: Anomalepididae). Journal of Morphology 270: 536-557 - get paper here
  • Ruthven, A. G. and H. T. Gaige. 1935. Observations on Typhlops from Puerto Rico and some of the adjacent islands. Occ. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan 307:1-12. - get paper here
  • Schwartz, A. & Henderson, R.W. 1991. Amphibians and Reptiles of the West Indies. University of Florida Press, Gainesville, 720 pp.
  • Shaw, G. 1802. General Zoology, or Systematic Natural History. Vol.3, part 2. G. Kearsley, Thomas Davison, London: 313-615 - get paper here
  • Thomas, R. 1976. Systematics of Antillean blind snakes of the genus Typhlops (Serpentes: Typhlopidae). Ph.D. Thesis, Louisiana State Univ.: xvi + 288pp.
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wilson, B.S. & Vogel, P. 2000. A survey of the herpetofauna of the Hellshire Hills, Jamaica, including the rediscovery of the Blue-tailed Galliwasp (Celestus duquesneyi Grant). Carib. J. Sci. 36: 244-249
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