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Tytthoscincus butleri (BOULENGER, 1912)

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Higher TaxaScincidae, Sphenomorphinae (Sphenomorphini), Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Butler’s Forest Skink 
SynonymLygosoma butleri BOULENGER 1912
Sphenomorphus butleri — GRISMER 2006
Sphenomorphus langkawiensis GRISMER 2008
Sphenomorphus butleri — GRISMER et al. 2010
Sphenomorphus langkawiensis — GRISMER 2011
Tytthoscincus langkawiensis — GRISMER et al. 2016
Tytthoscincus butleri — GRISMER et al. 2016 
DistributionWest Malaysia, Thailand

Type locality: Larut Hills, Perak, between 4000 and 4500 ft. elevation.

Specimens and their locations examined by GRISMER 2006: LSUHC (La Sierra University Herpetological Collection) 5650 from West Malaysia: Perak, Temengor Forest Reserve; BM (British Museum) 1946.8.7–9 from Bukit Larut; ZRC (ZRC, NUS) 2.5944 from Pahang, Telon Valley.

langkawiensis: West Malaysia (Langkawi Archipelago); Type locality: at 2200 along Cicada Trail, Pulau Singa Besar, Langkawi Archipelago, Kedah, West Malaysia.  
TypesSyntypes: BMNH 1946.8.17.5-9 (formerly 1900.9.26.1-6), Larut Hills, Perak, collected A.L. Butler.
Holotype: DWNP 3023, adult male, collected on 7 June 2002 by an unknown collector [langkawiensis] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (langkawiensis). Sphenomorphus langkawiensis is differentiated from all other species of Sundaland and Malay Peninsula Sphenomorphus by being relatively small (SVL 36.0–37.0 mm) and having 34–37 midbody scale rows; smooth as opposed to striated dorsal scales; 60–72 paravertebrals; 70–72 ventrals; four supraoculars; the parietals contacting the posteriormost supraocular; one medially projecting superciliary scale; two loreals; six supralabials and infralabials; 12 lamellae beneath the fourth toe; keeled subdigital lamellae; enlarged preanal scales; no body bands; a dark, diffuse, dorsolateral stripe; and a light dorsolateral and postorbital stripe. 
CommentSynonymy: Sphenomorphus langkawiensis GRISMER 2008 was synonymized with T. butleri by Grismer et al. 2017.

Extremely rare species known from only one or less than four specimens.

NCBI taxon ID: 1814916 [langkawiensis] 
EtymologyNamed after Mr. A. L. Butler, from whom G.A. Boulenger obtaiened the types. The specific epithet langkawiensis is in reference to the Langkawi Archipelago. 
  • Beolens, Bo; Michael Watkins, and Michael Grayson 2011. The Eponym Dictionary of Reptiles. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1912. A vertebrate fauna of the Malay Peninsula from the Isthmus of Kra to Singapore incl. the adjacent islands. Reptilia and Amphibia. London (Taylor & Francis), xiii + 298 S. - get paper here
  • Chan-ard, T., Parr, J.W.K. & Nabhitabhata, J. 2015. A field guide to the reptiles of Thailand. Oxford University Press, NY, 352 pp. [see book reviews by Pauwels & Grismer 2015 and Hikida 2015 for corrections] - get paper here
  • Greer, A.; David, P. & Teynié, A. 2006. The Southeast Asian scincid lizard Siaphos tridigitus Bourret, 1939 (Reptilia, Scincidae): a second specimen. Zoosystema 28 (3) : 785-790
  • Grismer, L. Lee 2006. Two new species of skinks (Genus Sphenomorphus Fitzinger 1843) from the Seribuat Archipelago, West Malaysia. Herpetological Natural History 9 (2): 151-162.
  • Grismer, L. Lee. 2008. A new species of insular skink (Genus Sphenomorphus Fitzinger 1843) from the Langkawi Archipelago, Kedah, West Malaysia with the first report of the herpetofauna of Pulau Singa Besar and an updated checklist of the herpetofauna of Pulau Langkawi. Zootaxa 1691: 53-66 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; & EVAN S. H. QUAH 2019. An updated and annotated checklist of the lizards of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, and their adjacent archipelagos. Zootaxa 4545 (2): 230–248 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L. Lee; Chan K. Onn, Jesse L. Grismer, Perry L. Wood, Jr., and A. Norhayati 2010. A CHECKLIST OF THE HERPETOFAUNA OF THE BANJARAN BINTANG, PENINSULAR MALAYSIA. Russ. J. Herpetol. 17 (2): 147-160 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; MOHD ABDUL MUIN, PERRY L. WOOD, JR., SHAHRUL ANUAR, & CHARLES W. LINKEM 2016. The transfer of two clades of Malaysian Sphenomorphus Fitzinger (Squamata: Scincidae) into the genus Tytthoscincus Linkem, Diesmos, & Brown and the description of a new Malaysian swamp-dwelling species. Zootaxa 4092 (2): 231–242 - get paper here
  • GRISMER, L. LEE; PERRY L. WOOD, JR., EVAN S.H. QUAH, SHAHRUL ANUAR, EHWAN B. NGADI, NUR AMALINA MOHD IZAM and NORHAYATI AHMAD 2017. Systematics, ecomorphology, cryptic speciation and biogeography of the lizard genus Tytthoscincus Linkem, Diesmos & Brown (Squamata: Scincidae) from the sky- island archipelago of Peninsular Malaysia. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society XX: 1–37 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L. 2007. A new species of small montane forest floor skink (genus Sphenomorphus Fitzinger 1843) form Southern peninsular Malaysia. Herpetologica 63 (4): 544-551 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L. 2011. Lizards of Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and their adjacent archipelagos. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 728 pp. [review in Herp. Rev. 43: 155] - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L.; Ahmad, N. & Kin Onn, C. 2009. A new, diminutive, upland Sphenomorphus Fitzinger 1843 (Squamata: Scincidae) from the Belum-Temengor Forest Complex, Peninsular Malaysia. Zootaxa 2312: 27–38 - get paper here
  • Grismer, L.L.; Wood Jr., P.L. & Grismer, J.L. 2009. A New Insular Species of Skink of the Genus Sphenomorphus Strauch 1887 (Squamata: Scincidae) from Pulau Perhentian Besar, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia. Tropical Life Sciences Research, 20(1): 51–69 - get paper here
  • Linkem, C.W.; Diesmos, A.C.; Brown, R.M. 2010. A NEW SPECIES OF SCINCID LIZARD (GENUS SPHENOMORPHUS) FROM PALAWAN ISLAND, PHILIPPINES. Herpetologica 66 (1): 67–79 - get paper here
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