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Ungaliophis panamensis SCHMIDT, 1933

IUCN Red List - Ungaliophis panamensis - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaBoidae (Charinaidae, Ungaliophiinae), Henophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesE: Panamanian Dwarf Boa
G: Mittelamerikanische Zwergboa 
SynonymUngaliophis panamensis SCHMIDT 1933
Ungaliophis danieli PRADO 1940: 35
Ungaliophis panamensis — VILLA et al. 1988
Ungaliophis panamensis — MCDIARMID, CAMPBELL & TOURÉ 1999: 224
Ungaliophis panamensis — SAVAGE 2002
Ungaliophis panamensis — GOWER et al. 2012: 65
Ungaliophis panamensis — WALLACH et al. 2014: 775
Ungaliophis panamensis — REYNOLDS & HENDERSON 2018: 32 
DistributionNicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia

Type locality: Cerro Brujo, Panama, 2000 feet  
TypesHolotype: USNM 54059, adult female
Holotype: Colego de S. Jose, Medellin no. 189 [Ungaliophis danieli] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: A species of Ungaliophis with 19-23 (rarely 25) rows of scales at midbody, reducing to 17 at the vent. Color is brown with dark diamond- or hourglass-shaped vertebral and triangular paravertebral blotches. The venter is heavily pigmented with prominent ovoid blotches running across the ventrals at least on the posterior half of the body. The rostral is separated from the prefrontal by the internasals. The prefrontal is considerably larger than the frontal. Supraoculars are relatively large, larger than half the area of the frontal. There are 7-9 supralabials, two or three entering the orbit, and 2-3 postoculars. There are 13-15 maxillary teeth. (Villa & Wilson 1990) 
CommentSynonymy: Ungaliophis danieli PRADO 1940 has been synonymized with U. panamensis by PETERS & OREJAS-MIRANDA 1970 and STIMSON 1969.

Habitat: partly arboreal (Harrington et al. 2018). 
EtymologyNamed after the type locality. 
  • Bogert,C.M. 1968. The variations and affinities of the dwarf boas of the genus Ungaliophis. American Museum Novitates 2340: 1-26 - get paper here
  • Butner, A. 1963. An Addition to the Boid Snake Subfamily Tropidophinae. Copeia 1963 (1): 160-161 - get paper here
  • Corn, M. J. 1975. Report on the first certain collection of Ungaliophis panamensis from Costa Rica. Carib. J. Sci. 14 [1974]: 167-75.
  • Dwyer, Q. 2017. Ungaliophis panamensis Schmidt, 1933. Diet. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(4): 939–930 - get paper here
  • Gower, D.; Garrett, K. & Stafford, P. 2012. Snakes. Firefly Books, Buffalo, NY,<br />144 p..
  • Greene, H.W. 1997. Snakes: The Evolution of Mystery in Nature. University of California Press, 351 pp. [p. 205] - get paper here
  • Harrington, Sean M; Jordyn M de Haan, Lindsey Shapiro, Sara Ruane 2018. Habits and characteristics of arboreal snakes worldwide: arboreality constrains body size but does not affect lineage diversification. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 125 (1): 61–71 - get paper here
  • Köhler, G. 2008. Reptiles of Central America. 2nd Ed. Herpeton-Verlag, 400 pp.
  • Lewis, T.R., Griffin, R.K., Martin, I.M., Figueroa, A., Ray, J.M., Feltham, J. and Grant, P.B., 2021. Ecology and morphology of the dwarf bromeliad boa Ungaliophis panamensis (Squamata, Boidae, Ungaliophiinae) in Costa Rica and Panama. Neotropical Biology and Conservation, 16(2), pp.317-331 - get paper here
  • McDiarmid, R.W.; Campbell, J.A. & Touré,T.A. 1999. Snake species of the world. Vol. 1. [type catalogue] Herpetologists’ League, 511 pp.
  • Nemuras, K. 1967. Notes on the Herpetology of Panama: Part 4. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 3 (3): 63-71 - get paper here
  • Páez, V.P. et al. 2002. Guía de campo de algunas especies de anfibios y reptiles de Antioquia. Universidad de Antioquia, - get paper here
  • Pérez-Santos,C. & Moreno, A.G. 1988. Ofidios de Colombia. Museo reegionale di Scienze Naturali, Torino, Monographie VI, 517 pp.
  • Prado 1940. Notas ofiológicas 10. utras serpentes da Colombia, com a descrição de uma nova especie de Boideo. Mem. Inst. Butantan, Sào Paulo 14: 35-39 - get paper here
  • Ray, Julie M. 2015. Geographic Distribution: Ungaliophis panamensis (southern bromeliad boa). Herpetological Review 46 (1): 64 - get paper here
  • Ray, Julie M. and Patty Ruback 2015. Updated checklists of snakes for the provinces of Panamá and Panamá Oeste, Republic of Panama. Mesoamerican Herpetology 2 (2): 168-188 - get paper here
  • Reynolds, R. Graham and Robert W. Henderson 2018. Boas of the World (Superfamily Booidae): A Checklist With Systematic, Taxonomic, and Conservation Assessments. Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology Sep 2018, Vol. 162, No. 1: 1-58. - get paper here
  • Savage, J.M. 2002. The Amphibians and Reptiles of Costa Rica: A Herpetofauna Between Two Continents, Between Two Seas. University of Chicago Press, 934 pp. [review in Copeia 2003 (1): 205]
  • Schmidt, Karl Patterson 1933. Amphibians and reptiles collected by the Smithsonian Biological Survey of the Panama Canal Zone. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 89 (1): 1-20 - get paper here
  • Solorzano, A. 2004. Serpientes de Costa Rica - Snakes of Costa Rica. Editorial INBio, Costa Rica, 792 pp.
  • Solórzano, A. 2006. Snakes of the Osa Peninsula [Costa Rica]. Reptilia (GB) (48): 30-34 - get paper here
  • Solórzano, A. 2006. Die Schlangen der Osa-Halbinsel [Costa Rica]. Reptilia (Münster) 11 (61): 28-31 - get paper here
  • Solórzano, A., and E. Carrillo. 2017. Ungaliophis panamensis Schmidt, 1933. Diet. Mesoamerican Herpetology 4(4): 940–941 - get paper here
  • Sunyer, Javier 2014. An updated checklist of the amphibians and reptiles of Nicaragua. Mesoamerican Herpetology 1 (2): 186–202. - get paper here
  • Ukuwela, K.D.B., de Silva, A., Sivaruban, A. et al. 2022. Diversity, distribution, and natural history of the marine snakes of Sri Lanka. Marine Biodiversity 52, 24 (2022) - get paper here
  • Underwood, G. 2002. On the rictal structures of some snakes. Herpetologica 58 (1): 1-17 - get paper here
  • Villa J D; Wilson L D 1990. Ungaliophis Muller. Central American dwarf boas. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles ( 480: 1-4 - get paper here
  • Wallach, Van; Kenneth L. Williams , Jeff Boundy 2014. Snakes of the World: A Catalogue of Living and Extinct Species. [type catalogue] Taylor and Francis, CRC Press, 1237 pp.
  • Wilcox, T.P.; Derrick J. Zwickl; Tracy A. Heath and David M. Hillis 2002. Phylogenetic relationships of the dwarf boas and a comparison of Bayesian and bootstrap measures of phylogenetic support. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 25 (2): 361-371 - get paper here
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