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Uracentron azureum (LINNAEUS, 1758)

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Higher TaxaTropiduridae, Iguania, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesUracentron azureum azureum (LINNAEUS 1758)
Uracentron azureum guentheri BOULENGER 1895
Uracentron azureum werneri MERTENS 1925 
Common NamesE: Green Thornytail Iguana
G: Dornschwanzleguan
Portuguese: Calango-Verde, Lagarto-Espinhoso, Lagarto-Rabo-de-Abacaxi, Tamaquaré-de-Espinho 
SynonymLacerta azurea LINNAEUS 1758: 202
Cordylus azureus — MEYER 1795: 17
Stellio brevicaudatus LATREILLE 1802: 29
Stellio azureus — LATREILLE 1802
Uromastyx azurea — MERREM 1820
Uracentron azureum — KAUP 1826: 88
Doryphorus brevicaudatus — CUVIER 1829: plate 6
Urocentron azurea — WAGLER 1830
Uranocentron [sp. ?] — GRAY 1831
Doryphorus azureus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1837: 371
Uranocentrum [sp. ?] — O'SHAUGHNESSY 1881
Uracentron azureum — BOULENGER 1885: 182
Hoplurus azureus — SCHLEGEL 1858
Urocentron azureum — ANDERSSON 1900: 8
Uracentron azureum — PETERS et al. 1970: 273
Uracentron azureum — HOOGMOED & AVILA-PIRES 1991: 78
Tropidurus azureum — FROST 1992
Tropidurus azureus — HARVEY & GUTBERLET 2000
Uracentron azureum — FROST et al. 2001
Tropidurus azureus — LEHR 2002: 87
Uranocentron azureum — VAZ-SILVA et al. 2015 (in error)

Uracentron azureum guentheri BOULENGER 1895
Uracentron guentheri BOULENGER 1895: 729
Uracentron guentheri — PETERS et al. 1970: 274
Uracentron guentheri — DIXON & SOINI 1975
Uracentron azureum guentheri — GREENE 1977: 258
Uracentron azureum guentheri — RIBEIRO-JUNIOR & AMARAL 2016

Uracentron azureum werneri MERTENS 1925
Uracentron werneri MERTENS 1925: 75
Uracentron werneri — PETERS et al. 1970: 274
Uracentron azureum werneri — GREENE 1977: 258
Uracentron azureum werneri — AVILA-PIRES 1995: 210
Uracentron azureum werneri — RIBEIRO-JUNIOR & AMARAL 2016 
DistributionGuyana, Suriname, French Guiana, N Brazil (Pará)
Colombia

guentheri: E Peru (Loreto), NW Brazil (W Amazonas)

werneri: Venezuela (Amazonas [HR 34: 386], Orinoco Valley), Colombia

Type locality: “Africa” (in error)  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: NRM (RMS, Royal Museum Stockholm); iconotype after Seba 1735: p. 62.
Type: BMNH 1946.8.29.85 (possibly, fide P. Campbell, pers. comm., May 2019) [guentheri]
Holotype: SMF 11203, male [werneri] 
DiagnosisDIAGNOSIS (genus): Following Ávila-Pires (1995, p. 201), Frost et al. (2001b, p. 363). (1) head not relatively small, body and tail not compressed latero-laterally; (2) body not extremely flattened dorso-ventrally; (3) skull not highly elevated at the level of the orbits; (4) premaxilla broad; (5) nutritive foramina of maxilla striking enlarged; (6) lingual process of dentary present, extending over lingual dentary process of coronoid; (7) angular strongly reduced; (8) medial centrale absent; (9) sternal fontanelle present; (10) circumorbitals distinct from other small supraorbital scales; (11) one enlarged subocular plus 1–5 smaller ones, in contact with supralabials; (12) poorly defined or absent postmental scale series; (13) strong antegular fold; (14) projecting tufts of elongate, spiny scales on the neck absent; (15) dark-banded, green dorsal background or dark dorsal background; (16) dorsals smooth or keeled, ventrals smooth; (17) enlarged middorsal scale row absent; (18) “flash” marks on pre-cloacal region and underneath thighs of males absent; (19) tail very short (0.5–0.7 SVL), nonautotomic, spatulate, heavily mucronate, spinose; (20) fourth finger longer than third; (21) lateral fringe not developed on both sides of fourth toes; (22) hemipenes attenuate, without apical disks; (23) arboreal (modified by O. Torres-Carvajal and A. Carvalho, pers. comm. 2021). 
CommentUracentron has been redefined as synonym of Tropidurus by Frost (1992). Illustrations of U. a. werneri in Lamar (1997).

Probably also in Bolivia (fide LANGSTROTH 2005)

Type species: Lacerta azurea LINNAEUS 1758: 202 is the type species of the genus Uracentron KAUP 1826. 
References
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