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Varanus salvator (LAURENTI, 1768)

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Higher TaxaVaranidae, Platynota, Varanoidea, Anguimorpha, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesVaranus salvator salvator (LAURENTI 1768)
Varanus salvator andamanensis DERANIYAGALA 1944
Varanus salvator bivittatus (KUHL 1820)
Varanus salvator celebensis (SCHLEGEL 1844)
Varanus salvator macromaculatus DERANIYAGALA 1944
Varanus salvator ziegleri KOCH & BÖHME 2010 
Common NamesE: Common Water Monitor
G: Bindenwaran
Chinese: 圆鼻巨蜥 
SynonymStellio salvator LAURENTI 1768: 58
Tupinambis elegans DAUDIN 1802 (in part)
Monitor nigricans CUVIER 1829: 27
Monitor exilis GRAY in GRIFFITH 1831
Hydrosaurus salvator — GRAY 1845: 13
Monitor salvator — BLYTH 1846: 376
Varanus salvator — CANTOR 1847: 635
Hydrosaurus salvator — KELAART 1854: 137
Hydrosaurus salvator — THEOBALD 1868: 23
Varanus salvator — BOULENGER 1885: 314
Varanus salvator — DE ROOIJ 1915: 146
Varanus scutigerulus BARBOUR 1932
Varanus salvator salvator — MERTENS 1937
Varanus salvator kabaragoya DERANIYAGALA 1947
Varanus salvator salvator — DE LISLE 1996: 134
Varanus salvator — MANTHEY & GROSSMANN 1997: 292
Varanus (Soterosaurus) salvator — ZIEGLER & BÖHME 1997
Varanus salvator — COX et al. 1998: 107
Varanus salvator andamanensis — GAULKE & HORN in PIANKA & KING 2004: 244
Varanus (Soterosaurus) salvator — KOCH et al. 2013
Varanus (Soterosaurus) salvator — BUCKLITSCH et al. 2016: 50
Varunus salvator — MALSAWMDAWNGLIANA et al. 2022 (in error)

Varanus salvator andamanensis DERANIYAGALA 1944
Varanus salvator andamanensis — MERTENS 1963
Varanus salvator andamanensis — BÖHME 2002
Varanus salvator andamanensis — GAULKE & HORN in PIANKA & KING 2004: 258
Varanus salvator andamanensis — KOCH et al. 2007

Varanus salvator bivittatus (KUHL 1820)
Tupinambis bivittatus KUHL 1820
Monitor nigricans CUVIER 1829: 27 (fide MERTENS 1963)
Lacerta Bivittatus — CUVIER 1831: 110
Varanus bivittatus — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1836: 486
Monitor bivittatus var. javanica SCHLEGEL 1839: X (nom. nud.)
Monitor bivittatus var. javanica — SCHLEGEL 1844
Varanus crocodilinus OWEN 1845
Varanus salvator bivittatus — MERTENS 1959: 17
Varanus salvator bivittatus — BÖHME 2002
Varanus salvator bivittatus — GAULKE & HORN in PIANKA & KING 2004: 260
Varanus (Soterosaurus) salvator bivittatus — KOCH et al. 2013
Varanus salvator bivittatus — ZIEGLER & VENCES 2020
Varanus salvator bivittatus — GLÄSSER-TROBISCH & TROBISCH 2023

Varanus salvator celebensis (SCHLEGEL 1844)
Monitor bivittatus var. celebensis SCHLEGEL 1839: X (nom. nud.)
Monitor bivittatus var. celebensis SCHLEGEL 1844
Varanus salvator celebensis — DE LISLE 2009
Varanus salvator celebensis — AULIYA & KOCH 2020: 143, 164

Varanus salvator macromaculatus DERANIYAGALA 1944
Varanus vittatus LESSON 1831: 307
Varanus salvator nicobariensis DERANIYAGALA 1947
Varanus salvator komaini NUTAPHAND 1987
Varanus salvator komaini — DWYER & PEREZ 2007
Varanus salvator macromaculatus — KOCH et al. 2007
Varanus salvator nicobariensis — MURTHY 2010
Varanus (Soterosaurus) salvator macromaculatus — KOCH et al. 2013
Varanus salvator macromaculatus — SACHA 2015
Varanus salvator macromaculatus — ZIEGLER & VENCES 2020

Varanus salvator ziegleri KOCH & BÖHME 2010
Varanus (Soterosaurus) salvator ziegleri — KOCH et al. 2013
Varanus salvator ziegleri — ZIEGLER & VENCES 2020 
DistributionSri Lanka, NE India (incl. Assam, Mizoram, Nagaland, Tripura, Nicobar Islands, Andaman Islands), Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar (= Burma), Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, S China (Hong Kong, Guangdong, Hainan, Guangxi, S Yunnan), Thailand (incl. Phuket), Malaysia (incl. Pulau Pangkor, Pulau Tioman, Johor: Pulau Besar), Singapore, Indonesia (Borneo, Sumatra, Nias, Enggano, Bangka, Kalimantan, Java, Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Wetar, Sulawesi, Natuna islands),

USA (possibly introduced to Florida)

adamanensis: Andaman Islands; Type locality: Port Blair, Andaman Islands.

bivittatus: Indonesia (Java, Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Ombai (Alor), Komodo, Wetar and some neighbouring islands within the Sunda arch); Type locality: Java (designated by
MERTENS 1959).

celebensis: Indonesia (North Sulawesi)

komaini: Thailand. Type locality: Amphoe La-ngu, Satun Prov., Thailand, and Thai-Malaysian bodeer area.

macromaculatus: Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Indonesia (Sumatra, Borneo)

salvator: restricted to Sri Lanka (KOCH et al. 2007); Type locality: America (in error); emended to "Ceylon" (= Sri Lanka) by Mertens (1959).

ziegleri: Obi Island, possibly Halmahera, Indonesia; Type locality: Kali Telaga, Obi Island, Maluku Province, Central Indonesia.  
Reproductionoviparous. Exhibits temperature‐dependent sex determination (TSD) fide Cornejo-Páramo et al. 2020 (and references therein). 
TypesNeotype: ZFMK 22092, juvenile, collected by B. Schulz, March 1978, donated by B. Schulz, April 1978; designated by Koch et al. (2007).
Holotype: ZSI 22176 (juvenile); ZSI 22174 (paratype) [andamanensis]
Lectotype: RMNH 3179, designated by De Lisle 2009 [celebensis]
Holotype: iconotype: Plate 30, fig. 2 in Seba's "Thesaurus", Tome II.
Lectotype: MNHN-RA 0871 [macromaculatus]
Syntypes: MNHN [Monitor nigricans]
Holotype: SMF 56442, a juvenile, collected by A. M. R. Wegner, 25 – 31.X.1953. [ziegleri]
Holotype: iconotype: Plate 30, fig. 2 in Seba’s “Thesaurus”, Tome II. [bivittatus] 
CommentSubspecies: Varanus salvator togianus (PETERS 1872), V. s. nuchalis, V. s. cumingi, and Varanus s. marmoratus (WIEGMANN 1834) have been elevated to full species status by KOCH et al. (2007).

Phylogenetics: Ziegler & Vences 2020 provide an updated phylogeny of the salvator complex (and suggest to treat many of the members as subspecies, rather than species, but do not formally change any names).

Conservation: Threatened by the reptile leather industry which exports ~40,000 skins from Indonesia each year (KOCH 2010).

Habitat: near rivers, has also been seen “far out at sea” [”marine” habitat]

Distribution: possibly in Bhutan (Lenz 2012). Older reports from the Philippine Islands refer to V. cumingi although Taylor 1922 reported both from the Philippines. See Ziegler & Vences 2020 for a map of the members of the salvator complex.

Genome: Chetruengchai et al. 2022. 
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