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Walterinnesia aegyptia LATASTE, 1887

IUCN Red List - Walterinnesia aegyptia - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaElapidae, Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Subspecies 
Common NamesE: Desert Cobra
G: Schwarze Wüsten-Kobra 
SynonymWalterinnesia aegyptia LATASTE 1887
Walterinnesia aegypti [sic] — HAAS 1957
Walterinnesia aegyptia — GASPERETTI 1988: 295
Walterinnesia aegyptia — WELCH 1994: 123
Walterinnesia aegyptia — VENCHI & SINDACO 2006
Walterinnesia aegyptia — WALLACH et al. 2014: 793
Walterinnesia aegyptia — BAR et al. 2021 
DistributionS Israel, NW Saudi Arabia, W Jordan, Egypt (Sinai), Iraq,
Lebanon ?

Type locality: Cairo (purchased there)  
Reproductionoviparous 
TypesHolotype: BMNH 1946.1.21.42 
DiagnosisDiagnosis: Same as genus; ventrals 180-200; subcaudals 40-53, anteriormost shields (1-13) single, others divided. (Leviton et al. 1992) 
CommentVenomous!

Distribution: not in Syria fide MARTENS 1997. For a map see Sindaco et al. 2013 and Bar et al. 2021.

Venom toxins of this species are similar to those of Ophiophagus hannah, implicating a close phylogenetic relationship.

Synonymy: Naja morgani MOCQUARD 1905 has been removed from the synonymy of W. aegyptia and revalidated as a valid species, W. morgani.

Type species: Walterinnesia aegyptia LATASTE 1887 is the type species of the genus Walterinnesia LATASTE 1887. 
EtymologyNamed after its distribution in Egypt.

The generic name, Walterinnesia, honors Walter Francis Innes Bey (1858–1937), who was a physician and zoologist in Egypt. 
References
  • Al-Quran, S. 2009. The Herpetofauna of the Southern Jordan. American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 6 (4): 385-391 [this journal has a dubious record, see http://goo.gl/81SBPv]
  • Aloufi, Abdulhadi A.; Zuhair S. Amr, Mohammad A. Abu Baker 2021. Reptiles and Amphibians of Al Madinah Al Munawwarah Province, Saudi Arabia. Russian Journal of Herpetology 28 (3): 1 - get paper here
  • Alshammari, A. M. 2022. Four New Records of Snake Species in Ar'ar Region, Northern Border of Saudi Arabia. Jordan Journal of Natural History, 9(1), 41-48 - get paper here
  • Alshammari, A. M. and Busais, S. M. 2020. Distribution of snakes in Ha’il Province, Saudi Arabia, with an identification key to the species. Russian Journal of Herpetology 27 (1): 5-10. - get paper here
  • Alshammari, Ahmed M. and Adel A. Ibrahim 2015. Lizards and Snakes in the Historical Faid Protected Area (Faid Hema), Ha'il Region, Saudi Arabia. Herp. Cons. Biol. 10 (3) - get paper here
  • ALSHAMMARI, AHMED M. AND ADEL A. IBRAHIM 2015. LIZARDS AND SNAKES IN THE HISTORICAL FAID PROTECTED AREA (FAID HEMA), HA'IL REGION, SAUDI ARABIA. Herp. Cons. Biol. 10 (3):1021–1029 - get paper here
  • Alshammari, Ahmed Mohajja; Salem M. Busais, Abdel A. Ibrahim 2017. Snakes in the Province of Ha’il, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, including two new records. Herpetozoa 30 (1/2): 59 - 63 - get paper here
  • Anderson, S.C. 1963. Amphibians and Reptiles from Iran. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. Ser. 4, 31(16): 417-498 - get paper here
  • Arıkan, H., Göçmen, B., Kumlutaş, Y., Alpagut-Keskin, N., Ilgaz, Ç & Yıldız, M.Z. 2008. Electrophoretic characterisation of the venom samples obtained from various Anatolian snakes (Serpentes: Colubridae, Viperidae, Elapidae). North-Western Journal of Zoology 4 (1): 16-28 - get paper here
  • Bar, A., Haimovitch, G. and Meiri, S. 2021. Field guide to the amphibians and reptiles of Israel. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt Am Main. ISBN 9783-89973-120-0 - get paper here
  • Bar, Aviad and Guy Haimovitch 2012. A Field Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of Israel. Pazbar LTD, 246 pp. - get paper here
  • BARAN, I. & KUMLUTAS, Y. & AVCI, A. & ILGAZ, Ç. 2006. Second record of Walterinnesia aegyptia LATASTE, 1887 from southeastern Anatolia [Short Note]. Herpetozoa 19 (1/2): 87-90 - get paper here
  • Corkill, N. L. and Cochrane, J. A. 1966. The snakes of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra. J. Bombay nat. Hist. Soc. 62 (3): 475-506 (1965) - get paper here
  • Disi, A.M.; Modry, D.; Necas, P. & Rifai, L. 2001. Amphibians and reptiles of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 408 pp.
  • Dobiey, M. & Vogel, G. 2007. Venomous Snakes of Africa - Giftschlangen Afrikas. Edition Chimaira, Terralog 15, 150 pp. - get paper here
  • Esterbauer, H. 2005. Die Schwarze Wüstenkobra - ökologische und verhaltensbiologische Beobachtungen an Walterinnesia aegyptia. Reptilia (Münster) 10 (55): 63-65 - get paper here
  • Gasperetti, J. 1976. Walterinnesia aegyptia Lataste. A rare black snake. Saudi Arabian Natur. Hist. Soc., Jiddah, J. no. 16: 2-8.
  • Gasperetti,J. 1988. Snakes of Arabia. Fauna of Saudi Arabia 9: 169-450
  • Gruber, U. 2009. Die Schlangen Europas, 2. Aufl. Kosmos Naturführer, 266 pp.
  • Haas G. and Werner, Y. L. 1969. Lizards and snakes from Southwestern Asia, collected by Henry Field. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 138: 327-406. - get paper here
  • Haas, Georg 1957. Some amphibians and reptiles from Arabia. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 29 (3): 47-86 - get paper here
  • Habeeb, Israa Nadhim & Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani 2016. Geographical distribution of the snakes of Iraq. Mesopotamia Environmental Journal 2 (3): 67-77
  • Jestrzemski, D. 2019. Reptilien in Israel - unterwegs in der Negev-Wüste. Elaphe 2019 (3): 40-49
  • Jestrzemski, Daniel 2018. Auf Schlangensuche im Heiligen Land – eine Woche Israel. Ophidia 12 (1): 2-17
  • Kamali, Kamran 2020. A Field Guide to the Reptiles and Amphibians of Iran. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt am Main, Germany (www.chimaira.de). 574 pp.
  • Lataste, F. 1887. Description d’un nouveau genre et d’une nouvelle espéce d’ophidien protéroglyphe. Le Naturaliste 1887: 411-413 - get paper here
  • Leviton,A.E.; Anderson,S.C.; Adler, K.; Minton,S.A. 1992. Handbook to Middle East Amphibians and Reptiles. SSAR, Oxford, Ohio (Contr. to Herpetol. No. 8), 1-252
  • Martens, Harald 1997. A review of "Zoogeography of amphibians and reptiles of Syria, with additional new records" (Herpetozoa 9(1/2), 1996). Herpetozoa 10 (3/4): 99-106 - get paper here
  • Marx,Hymen 1953. The elapid genus of snakes Walterinnesia. Fieldiana: Zoology 34: 189-196 - get paper here
  • Meiri, Shai; Amos Belmaker, Daniel Berkowic, Kesem Kazes, Erez Maza, Guy Bar-Oz and Roi Dor 2019. A checklist of Israeli land vertebrates. Israel Journal of Ecology and Evolution - get paper here
  • Nilson, Göran and Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani. 2007. Walterinnesia aegyptia Lataste, 1887 (Ophidia: Elapidae) and the status of Naga morgani Mocquard 1905. Russ. J. Herpetol. 14 (1):7-14 - get paper here
  • O’Shea, M. 2018. The Book of Snakes. Ivy Press / Quarto Publishing, London, - get paper here
  • Pola, L., Hejduk, V., Winkelhöfer, T., Zíka, A., Baker, M. A. A., & Amr, Z. S. 2020. Recent Observations on Amphibians and Reptiles in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Jordan Journal of Natural History, 7: 11-29 - get paper here
  • Rajabizadeh, M. 2018. Snakes of Iran. [in Farsi] Tehran: Iranshenasi, 496 pp. [2017 ?] - get paper here
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  • Sindaco, R.; Alberto Venchi & Cristina Grieco 2013. The Reptiles of the Western Palearctic, Volume 2: Annotated Checklist and Distributional Atlas of the Snakes of Europe, North Africa, Middle East and Central Asia, with an Update to Volume 1. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy), 543 pp. - get paper here
  • Sindaco, R.; Serra, G. & Menegon, M. 2006. New data on the Syrian herpetofauna with a newly-recorded species of snake. Zoology of the Middle-East 37: 29-38 - get paper here
  • Sindaco, Roberto; Riccardo Nincheri, Benedetto Lanza 2014. Catalogue of Arabian reptiles in the collections of the “La Specola” Museum, Florence. Scripta Herpetologica. Studies on Amphibians and Reptiles in honour of Benedetto Lanza: pp. 137-164 - get paper here
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  • Ugurtas, Ismail H., Theodore J. Papenfuss and Nicolai L. Orlov. 2001. New record of Walterinnesia aegyptia Lataste, 1887 (Ophidia: Elapidae: Bungarinae) in Turkey. Russ. J. Herpetol. 8 (3): 239-245 - get paper here
  • VAN ISSEM, P 2011. Haltung und Nachzucht der Schwarzen Wüstenkobra Walterinnesia aegyptia LATASTE, 1887. Sauria 33 (4): 57-70 - get paper here
  • Venchi, Alberto and Roberto Sindaco 2006. Annotated checklist of the reptiles of the Mediterranean countries, with keys to species identification. Part 2 -Snakes (Reptilia, Serpentes). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale "G. Doria", Genova, XCVIII: 259-364
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  • Zinner, H. 1986. On ecology and the significance of sematic coloration in the nocturnal desert elapid Walterinessia aegyptia Lataste (Reptilia, Ophidia). Hardun (3): 4-11;66
 
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