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Woodworthia maculata (GRAY, 1845)

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Higher TaxaDiplodactylidae, Gekkota, Sauria, Squamata (lizards: geckos)
Common NamesE: Raukawa gecko 
SynonymNaultinus maculatus GRAY 1845: 273 (non Hoplodactylus maculatus BOULENGER 1885)
Naultinus brevidactylus GRAY 1845: 273
Naultinus granulatus GRAY 1845: 273
Naultinus pacificus — BULLER 1871 (partim)
Naultinus granulatus — BULLER 1871
Hoplodactylus maculatus — BOULENGER 1885: 171
Hoplodactylus granulatus — BOULENGER 1885: 174
Woodworthia digitata GARMAN 1901: 4
Hoplodactylus pacificus — WERNER 1901
Dactylocnemis maculatus — HUTTON & DRUMMOND 1905
Hoplodactylus maculatus — BURT & BURT 1932
Gehyra pacifica — MERTENS 1934
Naultinus granulatus — CHRAPLIWY et al. 1961
Hoplodactylus digitatus — WERMUTH 1965
Hoplodactylus granulatus — WERMUTH 1965: 95 (partim)
Hoplodactylus maculatus — RÖSLER 2000: 90
Woodworthia maculatus — JEWELL 2008: 52
Woodworthia maculatus — NIELSEN et al. 2011
Woodworthia maculata — HITCHMOUGH et al. in CHAPPLE 2016
Woodworthia maculata — GOLLIN et al. 2020 
DistributionNew Zealand (North Island and northern South Island, including offshore islands)

Type locality: New Zealand
Type locality: New Zealand [brevidactylus]
Type locality: New Zealand [granulatus]  
TypesLectotype: BMNH 1946.9.8.14, New Zealand, designated by Bauer (1990). 
DiagnosisDefinition (genus). Pupils with crenulated margins; subdigital pads >2/3 of toe length; 7–15 lamellae under digit IV of pes; ventral skin translucent; mouth lining unpigmented, tongue with or without pigmented tip; precloacal pores of males continuous with femoral pores on under surface of thighs; SVL 38–85 mm [NIELSEN et al. 2011]

Description (maculatus): “Head short, oviform snout as long as, or slightly longer than, the distance between the eye and the ear-opening, once and two thirds the diameter of the orbit; ear-opening large, oval, oblique, two thirds or three fourths the diameter of the eye. Body and limbs moderate. Digits relatively much dilated ; the length of the slender distal part equals the width of the dilated portion, which is contained about three times in the length of the same; the anterior inferior lamelle chevron-shaped; ten to twelve lamell under the fourth toe a very slight web at the base of the digits, absent between the two outer toes. Head covered with granular scales, minute on the posterior half, considerably larger on the snout. Rostral broad, subquadrangular or subpentagonal, with trace of median' cleft above ; nostril pierced between the first upper labial and four or five small nasals ; eleven or twelve upper and nine or ten lower labials; mental small, triangular or trapezoid; small irregular chin-shields, passing gradually into the minute granules of the throat. Dorsal scales minutely granular; abdominal scales very small, juxtaposed or subimbricate. Three or four angular series of præ-anal pores, the two upper extending sometimes on the thighs; the number of pores very variable. Tail cylindrical, tapering, covered with small equal subhexagonal juxtaposed scales arranged in verticils; the base of the tail strongly swollen in the males, the swollen part covered with larger scales. Brown above, with small blackish spots, and more or less distinct irregular transverse dark brown bands on the back and tail; a more or less distinct dark streak on each side of the head, passing through the eye; lower surfaces dirty white, sometimes with a few brown specks.” (Boulenger 1885: 171)

Measurements (maculatus): Boulenger 1885: 172

Description (granulatus): “General characters and proportions as in the preceding [pacificus]; distinguished in the following important characters: -Ear-opening smaller, not more than half the diameter of the eye. Digital dilatation very narrow; all the lamella straight; no trace of web. Scales of back and belly larger. Four to seven angular series of prœanal pores, the three or four upper extending as femoral series; thirty to forty pores in the upper series, from one end to the other. Greyish or brown above, with dark brown or reddish-brown vermiculations and irregular cross bands, light-edged in front; two dark streaks from the eye, as in H. pacificus, separated by a yellowish interspace; lower surfaces whitish, generally with dark dots or variegations, especially on the gular region.” (Boulenger 1885: 174)

Measurements (granulatus): Boulenger 1885: 174 
CommentSynonymy: Thomas (1981) synonymizes Hoplodactylus maculatus with H. granulatus. CHRAPLIWY et al. (1961) synonymized N. brevidactylus and N. maculatus with H. granulatus.

Type species: Woodworthia digitata Garman 1901 = Woodworthia maculatus (Gray, 1845) is the type species of the genus Woodworthia GARMAN 1901. Hitchmough et al. in Chapple (2016: 102) pointed out that Woodworthia is feminine, so all species names should be feminine too. 
EtymologyNamed after Mr. W. McM. Woodworth (1864–1912), assistant in charge of Vermes (worms) as well as Agassiz’ personal assistant in the running of the museum and a controversial figure in Boston of that era. Woodworthia is feminine fide Hitchmough et al. 2016. 
  • Baling, Marlen. 2015. Woodworthia maculata (common gecko) leucism. Herpetological Review 46 (1): 97-98 - get paper here
  • BELL, TRENT & AARON M. BAUER 2017. Predation on a free-ranging Raukawa gecko (Woodworthia maculata) by a purple rock crab (Leptograpsus variegatus). BioGecko (4): 20-25
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) I. Geckonidae, Eublepharidae, Uroplatidae, Pygopodidae, Agamidae. London: 450 pp. - get paper here
  • Buller, W. 1871. A list of the lizards inhabiting New Zealand, with descriptions. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute, 3 [1870]:4-11 - get paper here
  • Burt, Charles E.; Burt, May Danheim 1932. Herpetological results of the Whitney South Sea Expedition. VI. Pacific island amphibians and reptiles in the collection of the American Museum of Natural History. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 63 (5): 461-597 - get paper here
  • Chrapliwy, P. S., H. M. Smith, and C. Grant. 1961. Systematic status of the geckonid lizard genera Gehyra, Peropus, Hoplodactylus and Naultinus. Herpetologica 17: 5-12 - get paper here
  • Cree, Alison and Kelly M. Hare 2010. Equal thermal opportunity does not result in equal gestation length in a cool-climate skink and gecko. Herp. Cons. Biol. 5 (2) - get paper here
  • Cree, Alison and Kelly M. Hare 2016. Reproduction and Life History of New Zealand Lizards. in: Chapple, D.G. (ed). New Zealand Lizards. Springer, pp. 169-206 - get paper here
  • Daugherty, Charles H.; Patterson, G. B.; Hitchmough, R. A. 1994. Taxonomic and conservation review of New Zealand herpetofauna. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 21 (4): 317-323 - get paper here
  • Freeman, Alistair 1993. Size differences between populations of Hoplodactylus maculatus in Canterbury, New Zealand. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 23 (1): 9-15
  • Garman, S. 1901. Some reptiles and batrachians from Australasia. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 39: 1-14 - get paper here
  • Gaulke, M. & Altenbach, A. 2003. 100% pure New Zealand. Reptilia (Münster) 8 (41): 56-63 - get paper here
  • Gollin, J. F., Gorman, N., & Armstrong, D. P. 2020. Twenty years on: changes in lizard encounter rates following eradication of rats from Kāpiti Island. New Zealand Journal of Ecology, 45(1), [2021] - get paper here
  • Gray, J. E. 1845. Catalogue of the specimens of lizards in the collection of the British Museum. Trustees of die British Museum/Edward Newman, London: xxvii + 289 pp. - get paper here
  • Henle, K. 1981. Die Herpetofauna Neuseelands, Teil 4: Endemische Geckos. Herpetofauna 3 (15): 16-19 - get paper here
  • Hitchmough, Rodney A.; Geoffrey B. Patterson, and David G. Chapple 2016. Putting a Name to Diversity: Taxonomy of the New Zealand Lizard Fauna. in: Chapple, D.G. (ed). New Zealand Lizards. Springer, pp. 87-108 - get paper here
  • Hoare, Joanne M. and Kelly M. Hare. 2006. Hoplodactylus maculatus Toxin consumption. Herpetological Review 37 (1): 86-87 - get paper here
  • Jewell, Tony 2008. A Photographic Guide to Reptiles and Amphibians of New Zealand [with corrections and comments in Chapple & Hitchmough 2009]. New Holland Publishers (NZ) Ltd,Auckland, 143 pp.
  • Macredie, Grant 1984. The lizard fauna of Castle Rock, Coromandel, New Zealand. Herpetofauna (Sydney) 15 (1-2): 37-40
  • Nielsen, Stuart V.; Aaron M. Bauer, Todd R. Jackman, Rod A. Hitchmough and Charles H. Daugherty 2011. New Zealand geckos (Diplodactylidae): Cryptic diversity in a post-Gondwanan lineage with trans-Tasman affinities. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 59 (1): 1-22 - get paper here
  • Robb,J. 1980. New Zealand Amphibians and Reptiles in Colour. Collins, Auckland, 128 pp.
  • Rock, J. & Cree, A. 2003. Intraspecific variation in the effect of temperature on pregnancy in the viviparous gecko Hoplodactylus maculatus. Herpetologica 59 (1): 8-22 - get paper here
  • Rösler, H. 2000. Studien an den Begattungsorganen der Geckos (Reptilia: Gekkota) - 3. Die Hemipenismorphologie von Arten der Gattungen Hoplodactylus FITZINGER 1843, Naultinus GRAY 1842, Oedura GRAY 1842, Rhacodactylus FITZINGER 1843 und Strophurus FITZINGER 1843 (Gek Gekkota 2: 220-248
  • Rösler, H. 2000. Kommentierte Liste der rezent, subrezent und fossil bekannten Geckotaxa (Reptilia: Gekkonomorpha). Gekkota 2: 28-153
  • Rösler, Herbert 2017. Gecko-Chorologie (Squamata: Gekkota). Gekkota (4): 1-160
  • Thomas, B.W. 1981. Hoplodactylus rakiurae n. sp. (Reptilia: Gekkonidae) from Stewart Island, New Zealand and comments on the taxonomic status of Heteropholis nebulosus McCann. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 8: 33- 47 - get paper here
  • van Winkel, D., Baling, M. & Hitchmough, R. 2018. Reptiles and Amphibians of New Zealand: A field guide. Auckland University Press, Auckland, 376 pp.
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