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Xantusia extorris WEBB, 1965

IUCN Red List - Xantusia extorris - Least Concern, LC

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Higher TaxaXantusiidae (Xantusiinae), Scincoidea, Sauria, Squamata (lizards)
Common NamesE: Durangoan Night Lizard
S: Nocturna de Durango 
SynonymXantusia vigilis extorris WEBB 1965
Xantusia vigilis extorris — BEZY 1982
Xantusia extorris — PONCE-CAMPOS et al. 2001
Xantusia ‘extorris’ — SINCLAIR et al. 2004
Xantusia extorris — LINER & CASAS-ANDREU 2008
Xantusia extorris — NOONAN et al. 2013 
DistributionMexico (Durango, Zacatecas, Coahuila)

Type locality: "3 miles south- west of Chocolate, at an elevation of 4550 feet, Durango, Mexico."  
Reproductionviviparous (not imputed, fide Zimin et al. 2022) 
TypesHolotype: MSUM 6866 (Michigan State Univ. Mus.) , female, collected by R. G. Webb and A. L. Metcalf on 8-9 July 1963 
CommentSubspecies: SINCLAIR et al. (2004) did not recognize X. vi. utahensis and considered several taxa as “candidate species” (indicated in their paper and above by single quotes). For their arizonae, wigginsi and extorris, however, it remains unclear if they are morphologically diagnosable while ‘sierrae’ is. However, mtDNA haplotypes of sierrae nested within vigilis, hence we retain the subspecies status of sierrae. 
EtymologyNamed after Latin extorris, = banished, exiled. 
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  • Baker, Rollin H.; Baker, Mary W.; Johnson, Jerry D.; Webb, Robert G. 1981. New records of mammals and reptiles from Northwestern Zacatecas, Mexico. Southwestern Naturalist 25(4):568-569 - get paper here
  • Bartholomew, Breck 1992. Utah night lizard, Xantusia vigilis utahensis, Tanner. Intermontanus 1 (2): 3
  • Bezy, R L 1982. Xantusia vigilis Baird. Desert night lizard. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles ( 302: 1-4 - get paper here
  • Bezy, Robert L. 1967. A new night lizard (Xantusia vigilis sierrae) from the southern Sireea Nevada in California. Journal of the Arizona Academy of Science 4 (3): 163-167 - get paper here
  • Bezy, Robert L. and Oscar Flores Villela. 1999. A new species of Xantusia (Squamata: Xantusiidae) from Zacatecas, Mexico. Herpetologica 55 (2): 174-184. - get paper here
  • Bezy,R.L. 1967. Variation, distribution, and taxonomic status of the Arizona night lizard (Xantusia arizonae). Copeia 1967 (3): 653-661 - get paper here
  • Bezy,R.L. & SItes, J.W. 1987. A preliminary study of allozyme evolution in the lizard family Xantusiidae. Herpetologica 43: 281-289 - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G.A. 1885. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Natural History). Vol. 2, Second edition. London, xiii+497 pp. - get paper here
  • Burt, Charles E. 1933. Some lizards from the Great Basin of the West and adjacent areas, with comments on the status of various forms. American Midland Naturalist 14: 228-250 - get paper here
  • Castañeda-Gaytán JG, Castañeda-Gaytán JJ, Cano-Villegas O, García-Vázquez UO 2013. Distribución de Xantusia extorris en el estado de Coahuila, México, con aspectos de historia natural. Acta Zoológica Mexicana (N.S.) 29: 240–244 - get paper here
  • Crother, B. I. (ed.) 2012. Standard Common and Current Scientific Names for North American Amphibians, Turtles, Reptiles, and Crocodilians, Seventh Edition. Herpetological Circular 39: 1-92
  • Deacon, James E.; W. Glen Bradley and Kenneth S. Moor 1966. Habitat of the Lizard Xantusia Vigilis in Southern Nevada. Southwestern Naturalist 11 (1): 126-128 - get paper here
  • Dunn, E. R.;Dunn, M. T. 1940. Generic names proposed in herpetology by E. D. Cope. Copeia 1940 (2): 69-76 - get paper here
  • Gadsden, Hector, Gamaliel Castañeda and Ricardo Israel Olivo Rodríguez. 2015. Xantusia extorris (Durango night lizard) field and preferred body temperature. Herpetological Review 46 (3): 440-441 - get paper here
  • Goldberg, Stephen R. and Robert L. Bezy. 2014. Xantusia extorris (Durango night lizard) reproduction. Herpetological Review 45 (3): 510 - get paper here
  • Jones, K.B.; Abbas, D.R. & Bergstedt, T. 1981. Herpetological records from Central and Northeastern Arizona. Herpetological Review 12 (1): 16 - get paper here
  • Klauber, Laurence M. 1931. A new species of Xantusia from Arizona, with a synopsis of the genus. Transactions of the San Diego Society of Natural History 7 (1): 1-16 - get paper here
  • Klauber, Laurence M. 1938. Notes from a herpetological diary, I. Copeia 1938 (4): 191-197 - get paper here
  • Klauber, Laurence M. 1940. Notes from a herpetological diary, II. Copeia 1940 (1): 15-18 - get paper here
  • Lazcano D, Nevárez-de los Reyes M, García-Padilla E, Johnson JD, Mata-Silva V, DeSantis DL, Wilson LD. 2019. The herpetofauna of Coahuila, Mexico: composition, distribution, and conservation status. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation 13(2) [General Section]: 31–94 (e189) - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR 2016. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Coahuila, Mexico, with comparison with adjoining states. ZooKeys 593: 117-137, doi: 10.3897/zookeys.593.8484 - get paper here
  • Lemos-Espinal JA, Smith GR, Gadsden-Esparza H, Valdez-Lares R, Woolrich-Piña GA 2018. Amphibians and reptiles of the state of Durango, Mexico, with comparisons with adjoining states. ZooKeys 748: 65-87 - get paper here
  • Morafka, David J.;Banta, Benjamin H. 1968. The addition of Xantusia vigilis (Reptilia: Lacertilia) to the known herpetofauna of Monterey County, California, with some ecological observations. Wasmann Journal of Biology 26 (1): 151-153 - get paper here
  • Morafka, David J.;Banta, Benjamin H. 1973. The distribution and microhabitat of Xantusia vigilis (Reptilia: Lacertilia) in the Pinnacles National Monument, San Benito and Monterrey Counties, California. Journal of Herpetology 7 (2): 97-108 - get paper here
  • Noonan, Brice P.; Jennifer B. Pramuk, Robert L. Bezy, Elizabeth A. Sinclair, Kevin de Queiroz, Jack W. Sites Jr. 2013. Phylogenetic relationships within the lizard clade Xantusiidae: Using trees and divergence times to address evolutionary questions at multiple levels. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Volume 69, Issue 1, October 2013, Pages 109–122 - get paper here
  • Papenfuss, T. J., Macey, J.R. & Schulte II, J.A. 2001. A new lizard in the genus Xantusia from Arizona. Scientific Papers of the Natural History Museum, University of Kansas (23): 1-9
  • Ponce-Campos, P.; Huerta Ortega, S.M.; Noguiera González, C. & Smith, H.M. 2001. Natural history notes on the Southern Plateau Night Lizard, Xantusia sanchezi. Bull. Maryland Herp. Soc. 37 (1): 18-21 - get paper here
  • Savage, Jay M. 1952. Studies on the lizard family Xantusidae I. The systematic status of the Baja California Night Lizards allied to Xantusia vigilis, with the description of a new subspecies. American Midland Naturalist 48 (2): 467-479 - get paper here
  • Savage, Jay M. 1963. Studies on the lizard family Xantusidae IV. The Genera. Contributions in Science, Los Angeles (71): 1-38 - get paper here
  • Sinclair, Elizabeth A.; Robert L. Bezy; Kathryn Bolles; Jose L. Camarillo R.; Keith A. Crandall and Jack W. Sites, Jr. 2004. Testing Species Boundaries in an Ancient Species Complex with Deep Phylogeographic History: Genus Xantusia (Squamata: Xantusiidae). American Naturalist 164 (3): 396-414 - get paper here
  • Slevin, Joseph R. 1949. Range extension of Xantusia vigilis. Herpetologica 5: 148 - get paper here
  • Stebbins, Robert F. 1948. New distributional records for Xantusia vigilis with observations on its habitat. American Midland Naturalist 39 (1): 96-101 - get paper here
  • Stebbins,R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, 2nd ed. Houghton Mifflin, Boston
  • Stejneger, L.H. 1893. Annotated list of the reptiles and batrachians collected by the Death Valley Expedition in 1891, with descriptions of new species. North American Fauna, No. 7: 159-228 (+ 14 plates + 4 maps) - get paper here
  • Storey, Margaret 1940. Xantusia vigilis in Utah and Nevada. Copeia 1940 (2): 135 - get paper here
  • Tanner, Wilmer W. 1957. A new Xantusia from southeastern Utah. Herpetologica 13 (1): 5-11 - get paper here
  • Tanner, Wilmer W. 1958. Herpetological range extensions. Herpetologica 14: 195-196 - get paper here
  • Turner, Frederick B. 1959. Xantusia v. vigilis in Death Valley National Monument, California. Copeia 1959 (2): 172-173 - get paper here
  • Turner, Frederick B.;Wauer, Roland H. 1963. A survey of the herpetofauna of the Death Valley area. Great Basin Naturalist 23 (3-4): 119-128 - get paper here
  • Valdez-Lares, R.; R. Muñiz-Martínez; E.Gadsden; G. Aguirre-León; G. Castañeda-Gaytán; R. Gonzalez-Trápaga 2013. Checklist of amphibians and reptiles of the state of Durango, México. Check List 9 (4):714-724 - get paper here
  • Van Denburgh,J. 1895. A review of the herpetology of Lower California. Part I - Reptiles. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. (2) 5: 77-163 - get paper here
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  • Webb, Robert G. 1965. A new night lizard (genus Xantusia) from Durango, Mexico. American Museum Novitates (2231): 1-16 - get paper here
  • Zimin, A., Zimin, S. V., Shine, R., Avila, L., Bauer, A., Böhm, M., Brown, R., Barki, G., de Oliveira Caetano, G. H., Castro Herrera, F., Chapple, D. G., Chirio, L., Colli, G. R., Doan, T. M., Glaw, F., Grismer, L. L., Itescu, Y., Kraus, F., LeBreton 2022. A global analysis of viviparity in squamates highlights its prevalence in cold climates. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 00, 1–16 - get paper here
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