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Zonateres lanei BAILEY, THOMAS & DA SILVA, 2005

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Higher TaxaColubridae (Dipsadinae), Colubroidea, Caenophidia, Alethinophidia, Serpentes, Squamata (snakes)
Common NamesPortuguese: Cobra-Espada, Corre-Campo 
SynonymThamnodynastes lanei BAILEY, THOMAS & DA SILVA 2005
Thamnodynastes nattereri — BOULENGER 1896: 116
Thamnodynastes nattereri — KOSLOWSKY 1898: 29
Thamnodynastes strigilis — AMARAL 1925
Thamnodynastes pallidus — AMARAL 1926
Thamnodynastes lanei — WALLACH et al. 2014: 718
Thamnodynastes nattereri — COSTA & BÉRNILS 2015: 92
Thamnodynastes lanei — NOGUEIRA et al. 2019
Thamnodynastes lanei — TREVINE et al. 2021
Thamnodynastes lanei — FRANÇA et al. 2022
Zonateres lanei — TREVINE et al. 2022 
DistributionBrazil (Mato Grosso do Sul), N Argentina ?, Paraguay, N/E Bolivia.

Type locality: Salobra, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.  
TypesHolotype: UMMZ 109081 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus). “Strongly keeled dorsals in 17/17/15 rows; two apical pits; distinct hemipenial morphology, highlighted by a long base and a large naked belt constricting the base and hemipenial body, long lobes with prominent spines, and each sulcus spermaticus extends centrolinearly as a narrow duct through each lobe (Fig. S12).” (Trevine et al. 2022, Appendix 3).

Synapomorphies (genus). “Apical pits present; longitudinal stripe on the lateral side of the body present; proximal region of hemipenial body constricted on a naked area; frontal articulation of the anterior process of vomer, in relation to the vomerian processes of the premaxilla; postero-ventral process of nasal bone aligned, in relation to the vertical lamina of nasal; conchal process of prefrontal bone reaches or surpasses half of the orbital lamina of prefrontal; maxillary process of palatine bone longer than larger (Appendix S4– S5).” (Trevine et al. 2022)

Description (N=29). “Keeled dorsal scales in 17/17/15 rows (N=26), one specimen with 17/18/15 (MNRJ 661); accentuated keels on 11–13 rows, few specimens with less conspicuous keels, especially juveniles; two apical pits; ventrals 137–158 (148±5, N=11) in males and 135–154 (141±5.1, N=16) in females; subcaudals 73–87 (80±4.8, N=11) in males and 75–88 (81±3.8, N=13) in females; cloacal divided; supralabials 8/8 (N=23), 4th–5th contacting the eye; infralabials 9/9 (N=17), 8/8 (N=2), 8/9 (N=2) or 10/9 (N=1), 1st–5th contacting first pair of mentals, 5th contacting the second pair; temporals 2+3/2+3 (N=14), 1+2/1=2 (N=1), 2+2/2+2 (N=1), 2+3/2+1 (N=1) or 2+1/2+1 (N=3); single nasal scale (N=22) or semi-divided at least on one of the sides of the head (N=2); loreal longer than wider; preoculars 2/2 (N=24) and postoculars 2/2 (N=24); SVL 278–438 mm (372±56 mm, N=11) and TL 99–158 mm (134±19.7 mm, N=11) for males; SVL 206– 431 mm (355.6±64.9 mm, N=16) and TL 73–176 mm (138.2±28.5 mm, N=16) for females; HL 5–7.5 mm (6.1±0.9 mm, N=6) for males and 11–18.6 mm (15.7±2.1 mm, N=13) for females; pupil elliptical; maxillary teeth 8–13 and dentary teeth 12–18. Dorsum of the body light brown, except on the first half, where a few paravertebral scales are speckled in black, forming small spots; a few dorsal scales bordered in white or yellow, mostly on the first half of the body; lateral dark brown stripe on the third and fourth rows of scales on each side, more evident after the second third of the body; lighter nuchal longitudinal stripe not conspicuous, delimited by two brown or grayish stripes on each side of the neck; beige venter with two outer longitudinal stripes contoured in black, one or two central additional stripes; thin postocular stripe, extended to the corner of the mouth; iris beige, with a brownish stripe that crosses the eye horizontally; small dark brown spots on labials (Fig. S12).” (Trevine et al. 2022, Appendix 3).

Diagnosis: Dorsal scales keeled, usually in 17 rows; cloacal scale divided; maxillary teeth usually 16-17+2G; ventrals 142-l59 in males, 135-153 in females; subcaudals 74-86 in males, 79-85 in females; hemipenis short and slender, ornamented with tiny spines; ventral pattern of four equidistant rows of hollow (double) lines; chin pale with no trace of bars; usually two preoculars per side.

The following characters may be used to separate T. lanei from sympatric congeners that have been described (characters are given for the sympatric species, followed parenthetically by characters of T. lanei): T. pallidus has smooth (vs. keeled) dorsal scales, dorsal scale rows 17- 17-13 or less (vs. 17-17-15), and a single (vs. divided) cloacal scale; T. chaquensis with slightly keeled dorsal scales (vs. keeled), dorsal scale rows 19-19-15 (vs. 17-17-15), and venter heavily suffused with dark pigment (vs. pale); T. attenuata has dorsal scale rows 19-19-15 (vs. 17-17-15).

Character table: Franco et al. 2017, Trevine et al. 2021: 238 (Table 1) 
CommentDistribution: Not listed for Argentina by  GIRAUDO & SCROCCHI 2002. See map in Nogueira et al. 2019.

Synonymy: Specimens of T. lanei have been called T. nattereri, T. strigilis, and T. pallidus in the literature (see BAILEY et al., p. 98).

Type species: Thamnodynastes lanei BAILEY, THOMAS & DA SILVA 2005 is the type species of the genus Zonateres TREVINE et al. 2022. 
EtymologyNamed after the late entomologist Frederico Lane, a teacher and friend of Nelson Jorge da Silva, Jr.

The genus was named after the junction of the Latin noun “zona” (belt or waist band) and the adjective “teres” (smooth, elegant, or polished), in reference to the characteristic naked belt that separates the body and base of the hemipenis of the type species. 
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