You are here » home advanced search Zootoca vivipara

Zootoca vivipara (LICHTENSTEIN, 1823)

IUCN Red List - Zootoca vivipara - Least Concern, LC

Can you confirm these amateur observations of Zootoca vivipara?

Add your own observation of
Zootoca vivipara »

Find more photos by Google images search: Google images

Higher TaxaLacertidae, Lacertinae, Sauria, Lacertoidea, Squamata (lizards)
SubspeciesZootoca vivipara louislantzi ARRIBAS 2009
Zootoca vivipara pannonica (LAC & KLUCH 1968)
Zootoca vivipara vivipara (LICHTENSTEIN 1823) 
Common NamesE: Viviparous Lizard, European common lizard
G: Waldeidechse
Croatian: živorodna gušterica
Russian: Живородящая ящерица
Chinese: 胎蜥
Mongolian: Zulzagalagch gurvel
Italian: lucertola vivipara 
SynonymSeps? atra SCHRANK in SCHRANK & MOLL 1785
Lacerta vivipara VON JACQUIN 1787: 33 (nom. nud.)
Lacertus cinereus LACÉPÈDE 1788
Lacerta oedura SHEPPARD 1804
Lacerta montana MIKAN in STURM 1805
Lacerta nigra WOLF in STURM 1805
Lacerta crocea WOLF in STURM 1805
Lacerta fragilis PALMSTRUCH & SWARTZ 1808
Lac. unicolor KUHL 1820
Lac. ptychodes KUHL 1820
Lacerta pyrrhogaster MERREM 1820
Lacerta vivipara LICHTENSTEIN 1823
Lacerta schreibersiana MILNE-EDWARDS 1829: 83
Lacerta Schreibersiana var. a. fusca GACHET 1832
Lacerta Schreibersiana var. b. lutea GACHET 1832
Lacerta chrysogastra ANDRZEJOWSKI 1832
Lacerta crocea — EVERSMANN 1834: 347
Lacerta de jacquin COCTEAU 1835
Lacerta de guérin COCTEAU 1835
Lacerta vivipara — COCTEAU 1835
Lacerta crocea — COCTEAU 1835
Lacerta montana — COCTEAU 1835
Lacerta pyrrhogaster — COCTEAU 1835
Lacerta unicolor — COCTEAU 1835
Zootoca montana TSCHUDI 1837
Zootoca alpina TSCHUDI 1837
Zootica [sic] vivpara — STORK 1838: 413
Lacerta vivipara — DUMÉRIL & BIBRON 1839: 204
“Lacerta isidori Geoffr.” (sic!) SCHINZ 1840
Zootoca vivipara — WELLS 1846: 449
Zootoca vivipara var. nigra — GRAY 1857: 107
Lacerta vivipara var. pallida FATIO 1872
Lacerta vivipara — BOULENGER 1887: 23
Lacerta vivipara var. carniolica WERNER 1897 (nomen nudum)
Lacerta (Zootoca ) vivipara var. melanogastra PRAZÁK 1898
Lacerta vivipara var. barabensis KASHENKO 1902
Lacerta vivipara — STEJNEGER 1907: 251
Lacerta vivipara var. gedulyi FEJERVÁRYI 1923
Lacerta vivipara sachalinensis PERELJESHIN & TERENTJEV 1963 (nom. nud.)
Lacerta vivipara — DELY & BÖHME 1984: 362
Lacerta herseyi AUSTIN 1992: 35
Lacerta vivipara — ENGELMANN et al 1993
Zootoca vivipara — MAYER & BISCHOFF 1996
Zootoca vivipara — NECAS et al. 1997
Lacerta vivipara — SZCZERBAK 2003
Zootoca vivipara — BISCHOFF 2005
Zootoca vivipara — ARNOLD et al. 2007
Lacerta (Zootoca) vivipara sachalinensis — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008
Zootoca vivipara vivipara — CORNETTI et al. 2014

Zootoca vivipara louislantzi ARRIBAS 2009
Zootoca vivipara louislantzi ARRIBAS 2009
Lacerta vivipara vasconiae OSENEGG 1995
Zootoca vivipara louislantzi — CORNETTI et al. 2014
Zootoca vivipara louislantzi — CHABAUD et al. 2022

Zootoca vivipara pannonica (LAC & KLUCH 1968)
Lacerta vivipara pannonica LAC & KLUCH 1968
Lacerta (Zootoca) vivipara pannonica — SINDACO & JEREMČENKO 2008 
DistributionNorway, Sweden, Finland
Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Germany, France, Austria, Denmark,
Poland, Czech Republic, Hungary,
Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Albania,
Monte Negro, Macedonia, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria, Greece,
Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg,
England, Ireland, N Spain
In the north beyond the Arctic Circle, in the south up to N Italy, Montenegro,
Russia (E Siberia, Sakhalin Island), Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, Mongolia,
Japan (Hokkaido Island)
China (Xinjiang [Altai region] and Heilongjiang)

Type locality: Schneeberg near Vienna, Austria

louislantzi: N Spain, Andorra, SW France (Pyrenees); type locality: Pla de Beret (Vall d’Aràn, Lleida). Spain.

pannonica: W/S Balkan peninsula; Type locality: Boťany, Kapu-sansky Forest in Eastern Slovakia). Mayer 2015 suggested to apply the name only to populations around the type locality.

sachalinensis: Poland, Belarus (Carpathians), Russia east through (Sakhalin island), Japan (n Hokkaido); Type locality: Sakhalin island.  
ReproductionViviparous and oviparous. Lacerta vivipara is ovovivparous throughout most of its range, but oviparous in the extreme southwest portion (Heulin et al., 1989). However, although lizards from the oviparous and ovovivparous populations are similar in many respects, they produce significant numbers of embryonic malformations when hybridized in the laboratory (Heulin et al., 1989). Zootoca vivipara louislantzi and carniolica are oviparous. Crosses between oviparous and ovovivparous populations of Zootoca (Lacerta) vivipara produce an F1 generation with an ‘‘intermediate’’ phenotype (Arrayago et al. 1996, Murphy & Thompson 2011), in which females retain embryos in utero for longer than oviparous females and embryos are surrounded by a thin, transparent shell. However, Cornetti et al. (2015) show that oviparous and ovovivparous populations in a contact zone in the Italian Alps do not hybridize and have been reproductively isolated for a long time, as shown by genetic differences. Hence, Cornetti et al. 2015 suggest to recognize Z. v. vivipara and Z. v. carniolica as two separate species.<br /><br />Recknagel et al. 2018 found that a single origin of viviparity and a subsequent reversal to oviparity in one clade.<br /><br />Z. v. pannonica is a ovovivparous lineage.<br />Z. v. louislantzi and carniolica are oviparous. 
TypesHolotype: unlocated
Holotype: MNCN 44290, Paratypes in ZFMK, MNCN, NMW and Coll. O. Arribas, holotype in MNCN [louislantzi]
Holotype: private collection of Ján Lác (№ 2) [pannonica] 
DiagnosisDiagnosis (genus): The only genus of Lacertini with a hemipenis that has a fully developed armature and complexly folded lobes, in which fully-formed young are produced over most of the geographic distribution, and which is also characterised by small short head, short limbs and thick short tail. Also possessing the following features found only in a minority of other Lacertini: nasal process of premaxilla often broad, postorbital and postfrontal bones fused throughout life, posterior presacral vertebrae with short ribs frequently five, row of supraciliary granules reduced or even absent, outer edge of parietal scale reaching the lateral border of parietal table both posteriorly and anteriorly, single postnasal scale, frequent contact between supranasal and anterior loreal scales above nostril, few dorsal body scales (25–37 across mid-back), serrated collar, imbricate ventral scales, no blue spots on outer ventral scales, insertion of retractor lateralis anterior muscle in front of vent thick, 36 macrochromosomes in males and often 35 in females, no microchromosomes, usually Z1Z2W-type sex chromosomes. Other more widely distributed features include head and body not strongly depressed and supraocular osteoderms complete in adults, usually seven premaxillary teeth in adults, usual number of presacral vertebrae 26 in males, inscriptional ribs sometimes absent, tail with bright colouring in juveniles of some populations (although largely masked by darker pigment), hemipenial microornamentation of crownshaped tubercles (from Arnold et al. 2007: 62). 
CommentNomenclature: Zootoca has been considered as a subgenus of Lacerta, but more recently as valid genus. VON JACQUIN 1787 did not use the name Lacerta vivipara in order to describe a new species but to report the fact that the species is viviparous. Hence, VON JACQUIN 1787 is not the author of Lacerta vivipara as indicated by much of the older literature but rather LICHTENSTEIN 1823 who provided the first description of the species (SCHMIDTLER & BÖHME 2011).

Synonymy: partly after SCHMIDTLER & BÖHME 2011. The validity of Z. v. sachalinensis has been questioned by GUILLAUME et al. (2006). The description of “Lacerta herseyi” is certainly not sufficient to establish a new species. His description seems to be based on an aberrant L. vivipara that displays an unusual behavior (“leaping lizard”). Z. v. sachalinensis is a nomen nudum fide Mayer & Böhme 2000, Mayer 2015.

In Z. vivipara, male mortality and emigration are not higher under male-biased adult sex ratio. Rather, an excess of adult males begets aggression toward adult females, whose survival and fecundity drop, along with their emigration rate (GALLIARD et al. 2005).

Karyotype: Z. vivipara includes populations with varying karyotypes (Kupriyanova et al. 2014, 2017). The genome has been sequenced by Yurchenko et al. 2019. Based on chromosomal and molecular studies Kupriyanova & Safronova (2020) concluded that Z. vivipara represents a group of cryptic taxa.

Genome: Yurchenko et al. 2019, Mezzasalma et al. 2023.

Subspecies: Z. v. pannonica was implicitly included in Surget-Groba et al. 2006 and both animals belonging to their clade E ("Western Viviparous") and animals belonging to the clade C (Central viviparous I) belong to that subspecies, hence it is not assignable to a any specific clade.

Distribution: Z. v. carniolica and Z. v. vivipara are parapatric in the Alpine chain (Cornetti et al. 2015). Only two areas may have potentially hybridizing oviparous and viviparous populations (Carinthia, Austria; Lindtke et al., 2010, and one in the central Italian Alps, Cornetti et al. 2015).

Conservation: Reptile of the year 2006. Zootoca vivipara has been called the “most successful reptile species of the world”, based on its distribution and the range of climates it inhabits (GUILLAUME et al. 2006).

Type species: Lacerta vivipara LICHTENSTEIN 1823 is the type species of the genus Zootoca WAGLER 1830.

References: see SCHMIDTLER & BÖHME 2011 for an extended bibliography. 
EtymologyNamed after its viviparous mode of reproduction.

Z. v. louislantzi has been named after Louis A. Lantz (1886-1953), French naturalist (see Ineich & Doronin 2017, Ineich et al. 2019).

WERNER'S name carniolica is a Latin feminine adjective meaning "belonging to the Carnian region" ("Krain" in German) i.e., the area where this new taxon seems to have its geographic and historical (réfugial) center.

The genus was named after Greek zoon (= animal) and tokos (= birth, child), and Latin viva (= alive) or vivum, -i (= living things), referring to the viviparous mode of reproduction. 
  • Adnagulov E.V. 2016. On the distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the Evreiskaya Autonomous Oblast' (Russia). [in Russian] Current Studies in Herpetology, 16(3/4): 87–106 - get paper here
  • Alibardi, L. 2021. Limb regeneration in lizards under natural and experimental conditions with considerations on the induction of appendages regeneration in amniotes. Annals of Anatomy-Anatomischer Anzeiger, 151844. - get paper here
  • Andrea Villa, Massimo Delfino 2019. A comparative atlas of the skull osteology of European lizards (Reptilia: Squamata). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 187 (3): 829–928 - get paper here
  • Andrews, R. M., Brandley, M. C. and Greene, V. W. 2013. Developmental sequences of squamate reptiles are taxon specific. Evolution & Development, 15: 326–343. doi: 10.1111/ede.12042 - get paper here
  • Antipov S. A., Doronin I. V., Milto K. D., Sergeev M. A. 2018. New Records of Amphibians and Reptiles in the Vladimir Region, Russia. [in Russian]. Current Studies in Herpetology 18 (3–4): 168–179 - get paper here
  • ARNDT, S. 1991. Ein ungewöhnlicher Lebensraum der Bergeidechse (Lacerta vivipara). Die Eidechse 2 (4): 13-14 - get paper here
  • Arnold, A. 2012. Zwei Beispiele zufälliger anthropogener Verfrachtung von Eidechsen aufgrund ihres Fluchtverhaltens. Terraria-Elaphe 2012 (5): 98-99 - get paper here
  • Arrayago, Maria-Jesus; Bea, Antonio; Heulin, Benoit 1996. Hybridization experiment between oviparous and viviparous strains of Lacerta vivipara: a new insight into the evolution of viviparity in reptiles. Herpetologica 52 (3): 333-342 - get paper here
  • Arribas, O.J. 2009. Morphological variability of the Cantabro-Pyrenean populations of Zootoca vivipara (JACQUIN, 1787) with description of a new subspecies. Herpetozoa 21 (3/4): 123-146 - get paper here
  • Austin J 1992. The leaping lizard: a new species for Britain? SWHS JOURNAL 2 (1) 1991[1992]: 35.
  • Bakiev, A., Kirillov, A., Kirillova, N., Ruchin, A., Klenina, A., Gorelov, R., & Kostina, N. 2020. Reptile occurrences data in the Volga River basin (Russia). Biodiversity Data Journal, 8: e58033 - get paper here
  • BARBADILLO, L.J. 1983. About the distribution of amphibians and reptiles in the province of Burgos. Goal. I am. Cat. Ictio. Herp. 5-10-10-7 - get paper here
  • Belik V.P. 2014. To the history of research on the amphibian and reptile fauna in the Volgograd Region. Current Studies in Herpetology 14 (1/2): 3–13. Резюме - get paper here
  • Berroneau, M. et al. 2010. Guide des Amphibiens et Reptiles d’Aquitaine. Association Cistude Nature, 180 pp.
  • Bischoff, W. 2007. Auf der Suche nach Gebirgseidechsen in drei Erdteilen. Draco 7 (27): 54-73 - get paper here
  • Böhme, W. & Rödder, D. 2006. Reptil des Jahres 2006: Die eurasische Wald- oder Bergeidechse (Zootoca vivipara), das erfolgreichste terrestrische Reptil der Welt. Reptilia (Münster) 11 (59): 55-60 - get paper here
  • Böhme, Wolfgang 2014. Herpetology in Bonn. Mertensiella 21. vi + 256 pp. - get paper here
  • Bonetti, Mathilde 2002. 100 Sauri. Mondadori (Milano), 192 pp. - get paper here
  • Börner, A. R. 2022. Erfahrungen und Anregungen zur Pflege und Aufbesserung von Biotopen für die heimischen Echsen im Westen Deutschlands Saurologica 9: 116 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, G. A. 1887. Catalogue of the lizards in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) III. Lacertidae, Gerrhosauridae, Scincidae, Anelytropsidae, Dibamidae, Chamaeleontidae. London: 575 pp. - get paper here
  • Boulenger, George A. 1890. A list of the reptiles and batrachians of Amoorland [Russia]. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (6) 5: 137-144 - get paper here
  • Boulenger,G.A. 1907. Remarks on Prof. von Méhely’s paper “Zur Lösung der ‘Muralis-Frage’. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7) 20: 39-46 - get paper here
  • Bowles, Frank D. 1995. Observations on the distribution of the common lizard (Lacerta vivipara) in Scotland. British Herpetological Society Bulletin (54): 32-33
  • BRINGSOE, H. 2012. Social interactions between female and juvenile Zootoca vivipara. Die Eidechse 23 (1): 10-18. - get paper here
  • Buehler, Matthew D.; Purevdorj Zoljargal, Erdenetushig Purvee, Khorloo Munkhbayar, Munkhbayar Munkhbaatar, Nyamsuren Batsaikhan, Natalia B. Ananjeva, Nikolai L. Orlov, Theordore J. Papenfuss, Diego Roldán-Pińa, - Douchindorj, Larry Lee Grismer, Jamie 2021. The Results of Four Recent Joint Expeditions to the Gobi Desert: Lacertids and Agamids. Russian Journal of Herpetology 28 (1): 15-32 - get paper here
  • Cabela, A., & Tiedemann, F. 1985. Atlas der Amphibien und Reptilien Osterreichs. Naturhist. Mus. in Wien, Neue Denkschriften Band 4 80 pp.
  • Carretero, M. A.; Roig, J. M.; Llorente, G. A. 2005. Variation in Preferred Body Temperature in an Oviparous Population of Lacerta (Zootoca) vivipara. The Herpetological Journal 15: 51-55 - get paper here
  • CEIRANS, A. 2004. Reptiles in sub-boreal forests of Eastern Europe: patterns of forest type preferences and habitat use in Anguis fragilis, Zootoca vivipara and Natrix natrix. Herpetozoa 17: - get paper here
  • CHABAUD, CHLOÉ; MATTHIEU BERRONEAU, MAUD BERRONEAU, ANDRÉAZ DUPOUÉ, MICHAËL GUILLON, ROBIN VITON, RODRIGO S.B. GAVIRA, JEAN CLOBERT, OLIVIER LOURDAIS & JEAN-FRANÇOIS LE GALLIARD. 2022. Climate aridity and habitat drive geographical variation in morphology and thermo-hydroregulation strategies of a widespread lizard species. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society blac114. - get paper here
  • Cocteau, J. Th. 1835. Sur un genre peu connu de Lézards vivipares (Zootoca, Wagler), et sur une nouvelle espèce de ce genre. Magasin Zool. Vol. 5 Classe III Pl. 9, pp. 1-25 - get paper here
  • Cogălniceanu, Dan; Laurentiu Rozylowicz, Paul Székely, Ciprian Samoilă, Florina Stănescu, Marian Tudor, Diana Székely, Ruben Iosif 2013. Diversity and distribution of reptiles in Romania. ZooKeys 341 (2013): 49-76 - get paper here
  • Cornetti, L; GF Ficetola, S Hoban, C Vernesi 2015. Genetic and ecological data reveal species boundaries between viviparous and oviparous lizard lineages. Heredity; doi: 10.1038/hdy.2015.54 - get paper here
  • Cornetti, Luca; Francesco Belluardo, Samuele Ghielmi, Giovanni Giovine, Gentile F. Ficetola, Giorgio Bertorelle, Cristiano Vernesi and Heidi C. Hauffe 2015. Reproductive isolation between oviparous and viviparous lineages of the Eurasian common lizard Zootoca vivipara in a contact zone. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, doi: 10.1111/bij.12478 - get paper here
  • Cornetti, Luca; Matteo Girardi; Samuele Ghielmi and Cristiano Vernesi 2018. Museum specimens indicate genetic erosion in an endangered lizard. Amphibia-Reptilia 39 (3): 347–354 - get paper here
  • Cornetti, Luca; Michele Menegon, Giovanni Giovine, Benoit Heulin, Cristiano Vernesi 2014. Mitochondrial and Nuclear DNA Survey of Zootoca vivipara across the Eastern Italian Alps: Evolutionary Relationships, Historical Demography and Conservation Implications. PLoS One 9 (1): e85912. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0085912 - get paper here
  • Cornetti, Luca; Oliver W Griffith, Andrea Benazzo, Alex Panziera, Camilla M Whittington, Michael B Thompson, Cristiano Vernesi, Giorgio Bertorelle 2017. Candidate genes involved in the evolution of viviparity: a RAD sequencing experiment in the lizard Zootoca vivipara (Squamata: Lacertidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, zlx069 - get paper here
  • Covaciu-Marcov S.-D., Sas, I.; Cicort-Lucaciu A.-St.; Achim, A. & Andritcu, A. 2005. THE HERPETOFAUNA OF TĂŞNAD HILLS (SATU-MARE COUNTY, ROMANIA). Analele Ştiinţifice ale Universităţii “Al.I. Cuza” Iaşi, s. Biologie animală, Tom LI: 159-168
  • Covaciu-Marcov, S.D., Cicort-Lucaciu, A.S., Dobre, F., Ferenţi, S., Birceanu, M., Mihuţ, R. & Strugariu, A. 2009. The herpetofauna of the Jiului Gorge National Park, Romania. North-Western Journal of Zoology 5 (Suppl. 1): 1-78
  • Covaciu-Marcov, S.D., Cicort-Lucaciu, A.S., Sas, I.; Mosu, A.G.; Toth, B. 2008. Contributions to the knowledge of the composition and geographical distribution of the Western Maramures County Herpetofauna. Herpetologica Romanica 2: 27-36
  • Covaciu-Marcov, S.D., Cicort-Lucaciu, A.S., Ferenţi, S. & David, A. 2008. The distribution of lowland Zootoca vivipara populations in North-Western Romania. North-Western Journal of Zoology 4 (1): 072-078 - get paper here
  • Crnobrnja Isailovic, J., Aleksic, I. 2004. Clutch size in two Central Balkans populations of European common lizard Lacerta vivipara. Biota 5 (1-2), 5-10
  • Dely, Olivér György 1981. Über die morphologische Variation der Zentral-Osteuropäischen Bergeidechse (Lacerta vivipara Jacquin). Vertebrata Hungarica 20: 5-54
  • Dely,O.G. & Böhme,W. 1984. Lacerta vivipara - Waldeidechse. In: Böhme,W. (ed.), Handbuch der Reptilien und Amphibien Europas, Band 2/I., Echsen II (Lacerta). Aula-Verlag Wiesbaden, pp. 362-393
  • Dossenbach, H.D., & Ganz, A. 1977. Die Reptilien der Schweiz. Naturf. Gesell. Schaffhausen, Switzerland, Neujahrsblatt nr. 30, 31 pp.
  • Dujsebayeva, T. N. (ed.) 2010. Short review of last changes in the checklist of amphibians and reptiles of Kazakhstan. [in Russian]. In: Dujsebayeva, T. N. (ed.) Herpetological Researches in Kazakhstan and adjacent countries, p. 37-52
  • Dujsebayeva, T. N., and Orlova, V. F. 2009. Distribution and ecology of the Viviparous Lizard, Zootoca vivipara (Jasquin, 1787) in Markakol Depression (South Altai Mountains). [in Russian]. Current Studies in Herpetology 9 (¾): 91 – 102
  • Duméril, A. M. C. and G. Bibron. 1839. Erpétologie Générale on Histoire Naturelle Complète des Reptiles. Vol. 5. Roret/Fain et Thunot, Paris, 871 pp. - get paper here
  • Dunaev E.A., Orlova V.F. 2017. Amphibians and reptiles of Russia. Atlas and determination. 2nd. ed. Moscow: Phyton XXI, 328 p
  • Dupoué A, Lourdais O, Meylan S, et al. 2019. Some like it dry: Water restriction overrides heterogametic sex determination in two reptiles. Ecol Evol. 00:1–10 - get paper here
  • Elmberg, J. 1995. Grod- och kräldjurens utbredning i Norrland. Natur i Norr 14: 57-82
  • Engelmann, E. & Kabisch, K. 1973. Disk-elektrophoretische Untersuchungen der Serumproteine europäischer Echsen der Familien Anguidae und Lacertidae. Experientia 29: 1440-1441 - get paper here
  • Engelmann, W.E. et al. 1993. Lurche und Kriechtiere Europas. Neumann Verlag (Radebeul, Germany), 440 pp.
  • Eplanova G.V., Kalmykova O.G., Bakiev A.G., Klenina A.A. 2018. Ecology and some morphological characteristics of the Zootoca vivipara (Reptilia: Lacertidae) on the southern periphery of its range in the steppe zone (Orenburg State Nature Reserve, Russia). Nature Conservation Research 3 (Suppl.1): 98–109. DOI: 10.24189/ncr.2018.058 - get paper here
  • Epova L.A., Kuranova V.N., Yartsev V.V., Absalyamova E.N. 2016. Age, body sizes and growth of Zootoca vivipara (Sauria: Lacertidae) from its mountain populations in the Kuznetsk Alatau (Southeast of the Western Siberia). Current Studies in Herpetology, 16(1/2): 51–60 - get paper here
  • Eversmann,E. 1834. Lacertae Imperii Rossici variis in itineribus meis observatae. [Lacerta sylvicola]. Nouv. Mém. Soc. imp. Natur. (Moscow) 3: 339-358 - get paper here
  • Ezaz, T. et al. 2009. Sex Chromosome Evolution in Lizards: Independent Origins and Rapid Transitions. Cytogenet Genome Res 127: 249-260 - get paper here
  • Farren, Aodan; Prodöhl, Paulo A.; Laming, Peter; Reid, Neil 2010. Distribution of the common lizard (Zootoca vivipara) and landscape favourability for the species in Northern Ireland. Amphibia-Reptilia 31: 387-394 - get paper here
  • FISH, ALEXIA 2015. Common lizards (Zootoca vivipara) and slow-worms (Anguis fragilis) are not found in coppiced small-leaved lime (Tilia cordata) areas of a Northamptonshire-Cambridgeshire nature reserve. Herpetological Bulletin (134) - get paper here
  • Fish, Alexia C. M. 2016. Observations on felt and corrugated roof sheeting as materials for constructing coverboards to assess slow worm (Anguis fragilis) and common lizard (Zootoca vivipara) populations. Herpetological Bulletin (135) - get paper here
  • Fitze, Patrick S.; Julien Cote, Luis Martin San-Jose, Sandrine Meylan, Caroline Isaksson, Staffan Andersson, Jean-Marc Rossi and Jean Clobert 2009. Carotenoid-Based Colours Reflect the Stress Response in the Common Lizard. PLoS One 4 (4): e5111 - get paper here
  • Foucart, Thomas; ; Benoit Heulin and Olivier Lourdais 2017. Clutch size influences embryonic stages at oviposition in a lizard with prolonged egg retention. Amphibia-Reptilia - get paper here
  • Gemel, R.; G. Gassner & S. Schweiger 2019. Katalog der Typen der Herpetologischen Sammlung des Naturhistorischen Museums Wien – 2018. Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 121: 33–248
  • Glandt, D. 1977. Über eine Lacerta agilis/Lacerta vivipara Population, nebst Bemerkungen zum Sympatrieproblem. Salamandra 13 (1): 13-21 - get paper here
  • Glandt, D. 2001. Die Waldeidechse: unscheinbar - anpassungsfähig - erfolgreich. Z. Feldherpetologie, Beiheft 2. Laurenti-Verlag, Bochum, 111 pp. - get paper here
  • Gleed-Owen, Chris 2012. Zootoca vivipara (common or viviparous lizard): Injury or pathology? Herpetological Bulletin (120) - get paper here
  • Goris, R.C. & Maeda, N. 2004. Guide to the Amphibians and Reptiles of Japan. Krieger, Malabar, 285 pp.
  • GRAITSON, ERIC & JULIEN TAYMANS. 2022. Impacts des lâchers massifs de faisans de Colchide (Phasianus colchicus L.) sur les squamates (Reptilia Squamata). Bulletin de la Société Herpétologique de France 180: 1–7. - get paper here
  • Gramentz, Dieter. 2014. Die Waldeidechse (Zootoca vivipara Lichtenstein, 1823) in Berlin, eine Bestandsaufnahme aktueller Fundorte (Teil 1). Sauria 36 (1): 61-69 - get paper here
  • Gramentz, Dieter. 2014. Die Waldeidechse (Zootoca vivipara) in Berlin, eine Bestandsaufnahme aktueller Fundorte (Teil 2). Sauria 36 (3): 47-55 - get paper here
  • Gray,J.E. 1857. Note on Zootoca vivipara var. nigra. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (2) 19: 107 - get paper here
  • Guillaume, C.P., B. Heulin, I. Ya. Pavlinov, D. V. Semenov, A. Bea, N. Vogrin and Y. Surget-Groba 2006. Morphological variations in the common lizard, Lacerta (Zootoca) vivipara. Russ. J. Herpetol. 13 (1): 1-10
  • Gurget-Groba, Yann; Heulin, Benoit; Guillaume, Claude-Pierre; Puky, Miklos; Semenov, Dmitry; Orlova, Valentina; Kupriyanova, Larissa; Ghira, Ioan; Smajda, Benedik 2006. Multiple origins of viviparity, or reversal from viviparity to oviparity? The European common lizard (Zootoca vivipara, Lacertidae) and the evolution of parity. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 87: 1-11. - get paper here
  • GVOZDENOVIĆ, S., & IKOVIĆ, V. 2022. CHECKLIST OF AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES OF MONTENEGRO AND THEIR CONSERVATION STATUS. Natura Montenegrina, Podgorica, 2022, 14 (2): 93-105 - get paper here
  • Gvozdík, L. & A.M. Castilla 2001. A Comparative Study of Preferred Body Temperatures and Critical Thermal Tolerance Limits among Populations of Zootoca vivipara (Squamata: Lacertidae) along an Altitudinal Gradient Journal of Herpetology 35 (3): 486-492. - get paper here
  • HAUSER, D. 2014. Fund zweier ungewöhnlich gefärbter Waldeidechsen (Zootoca vivipara) in Oberschwaben. Die Eidechse 25 (1): 9-30. - get paper here
  • Herrmann, H. J., & Kabisch, K. 1990. Die Herpetofauna der Insel Sachalin. Herpetofauna 12 (67): 6-10. - get paper here
  • Heulin, B., Arrayago, M. J., and Bea, A. 1989. Experience d’hybridation entre les souches ovipare et vivipare du lezard Lacerta vivipara. Comp. Rend. Acad. Sci. Series 3 308: 341–346. - get paper here
  • Heulin, Benoît; Garnier, Danielle; Surget-Groba, Yann; Deunff, Jean 2008. Plasma levels of estradiol during vitellogenesis and early gestation in oviparous and viviparous Lacerta (Zootoca) vivipara. Amphibia-Reptilia 29 (1): 135-19 - get paper here
  • Hofmann, S. 2002. Eine einfache Methode zur Blutentnahme bei Zootoca vivipara (JAQIUN, 1787). Salamandra 38 (3): 145-148 - get paper here
  • Horreo JL, Pelaez ML, Suárez T, et al. 2018. Phylogeography, evolutionary history and effects of glaciations in a species (Zootoca vivipara) inhabiting multiple biogeographic regions. J Biogeogr. 45: 1616– 1627 - get paper here
  • Horreo, J.L., Jiménez-Valverde, A. & Fitze, P.S. 2021. Climatic niche differences among Zootoca vivipara clades with different parity modes: implications for the evolution and maintenance of viviparity. Front Zool 18, 32 (2021) - get paper here
  • Horreo, Jose L.; Maria L. Peláez, and Patrick S. Fitze 2015. Skin sheds as a useful DNA source for lizard conservation. Phyllomedusa 14 (1): 73-77 - get paper here
  • Horreo, Jose Luis; Maria Luisa Peláez, Teresa Suárez, Benoit Heulin, and Patrick Stefan Fitze 2017. Development of thirty-four new microsatellite loci and multiplexing of seven existing loci for Zootoca vivipara (Squamata: Lacertidae). Phyllomedusa 16 (1): 89-96 - get paper here
  • Horváthová, Terézia; Michal Baláž, and David Jandzik 2013. Reproduction and Morphology of the Common Lizard (Zootoca vivipara) from Montane Populations in Slovakia. Zoological Science 30 (2): 92-98. - get paper here
  • Idrisova L. A. 2017. Pholidosis Variations of the Sand Lizard Lacerta agilis (Linnaeus, 1758) and Common Lizard Zootoca vivipara (Lichtenstein, 1823) from the Western Part of the Tatarstan Republic. [in Russian] Current Studies in Herpetology 17 (1–2): 28–35; DOI: 10.18500/1814-6090-2017-17-1-2-28-35 - get paper here
  • Ineich, Ivan and Doronin, Igor 2017. Louis Amédée Lantz (1886-1953): The life and work of an Alsatian pioneer of European herpetology. Herpetological Review 48 (1): 93-108 - get paper here
  • INEICH, IVAN; IGOR V. DORONIN, MARC CHEYLAN & PATRICK D. CAMPBELL 2019. Additional data on the herpetological collection of Louis Amédée Lantz (1886– 1953), with emphasis on specimens in the Natural History Museum, London. Zootaxa 4638 (1): 095–113 - get paper here
  • Isailovic, Jelka Crnobrnja, Jelena Dinov, Oliver Isailovic and Vladimir Randelovic. 2015. Westernmost record of Zootoca vivipara (Lichtenstein, 1823), in the Rhodope Massif, Serbia. Herpetozoa 27 (3/4): 162-165 [2014] - get paper here
  • Jacquin, J.F. de 1787. Lacerta vivipara, observatio. Nova Acta Helvet. I: 33-34 - get paper here
  • Jahrling, Franziska, Anja Junghanns and Falk Ortlieb. 2013. Zootoca vivipara (common lizard) record weight. Herpetological Review 44 (3): 517 - get paper here
  • JURCZYK, KACPER & BARTOSZ BORCZYK. 2022. Body Size Structure and Sex Ratio in a Population of the Common Lizard Zootoca vivipara (Lichtenstein, 1823) from SW Poland. Folia Biologica (Kraków) 70(3): 107–112. - get paper here
  • Kabisch, K. 1966. Herpetologische Exkursionen in die Umgebung von Sofia. Aquarien-Terrarien, 4:131-135
  • Kabisch, K., Herrmann, H.-J. & Matjushkov, G. 1990. Beobachtungen an Amphibien und Reptilien Sachalins. Aquarien Terrarien 37 (7): 235-238
  • KAMMEL, W. 1992. Zur Situation der Wiesenotter, Vipera ursinii rakosiensis (MEHELY, 1894), und der Pannonischen Bergeidechse, Lacerta vivipara pannonica LAC & KLUCH, 1968, im Burgenland (Österreich). Herpetozoa 5 - get paper here
  • Kawamoto, Anna; Jean-François Le Galliard, Arnaud Badiane 2021. The role of social costs as a mechanism enforcing the honesty of ultraviolet-reflecting signals in a lizard. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, Volume 133, Issue 4, August 2021, Pages 1126–1138, - get paper here
  • Kolenda, Krzysztof; Bartłomiej Najbar, Anna Najbar, Paweł Kaczmarek, Mikołaj Kaczmarski, Tomasz Skawiński 2017. Rare colour aberrations and anomalies of amphibians and reptiles recorded in Poland. Herpetology Notes 10: 103-109 - get paper here
  • Kolenda, Krzysztof; Magdalena Wieczorek, Anna Najbar, Bartłomiej Najbar, Tomasz Skawiński 2017. Limb malformation and tail bifurcation in sand lizards (Lacerta agilis) and common lizards (Zootoca vivipara) from Poland. Herpetology Notes 10: 713-716 - get paper here
  • KRÜTGEN, JÖRN 2011. Einsatz von Bodenfallen zur Erfassung der Waldeidechse (Zootoca vivipara). Zeitschrift für Feldherpetologie 18 (2) - get paper here
  • Kühnis, J. B. 2006. Die Reptilien des Fürstentums Liechtenstein. Amtlicher Lehrmittelverlag, Vaduz, Naturkundliche Forschung im Fürstentum Liechtenstein, 23: 1-51 - get paper here
  • Kupriianova LA, Melashchenko OB, Alekseev PI. 2007. [Karyological investigations of populations of the lizard Zootoca vivipara (Juaquin, 1787) from the Baltic Sea basin (western region of Russia)] [Article in Russian]. Tsitologiia 49(7):601-6.
  • Kupriianova, L.A. 2004. Cytogenetical approaches to the problem of form-formation and subspeciation in the complex Lacerta (Zootoca) vivipara (Lacertidae, Sauria) [in Russian]. Tsitologiia 46(7):649-658
  • Kupriyanova L., Niskanen M., and Oksanen T. 2014. Karyotype dispersal of the common lizard Zootoca vivipara (Lichtenstein, 1823) in eastern and northeastern Fennoscandia. Mem. Soc. Fauna Flora Fenn., 90, 83 – 90
  • Kupriyanova, L.A. and L.D. Safronova 2020. Results and perspectives of cyto- and genetic studying of “cryptic” group of the Lacertidae (in Russian). Proceedings of the Zoological Institute RAS. 324 (1): - get paper here
  • Kupriyanova, L.A.; Terhivuo, J.; Pasanen, S. 2005. Contribution to the knowledge of karyotype dispersal of the common lizard (Zootoca v. vivipara Jacq.) in eastern Fennoscandia. Memoranda – Societas Pro Fauna et Flora Fennica 81(3):97-101.
  • Kupriyanova, Larisa A. and Olga Melashchenko. 2011. The common Eurasian lizard Zootoca vivipara (Jacquin, 1787) from Russia: sex chromosomes, subspeciation, and colonization. Russ. J. Herpetol. 18 (2): 99-104 - get paper here
  • Kupriyanova, Larissa A.; Werner Mayer & Wolfgang Böhme 2006. Karyotype diversity of the Eurasian lizard Zootoca vivipara (Jacquin, 1787) from Central Europe and the evolution of viviparity. Herpetologica Bonnensis II: 67-72 - get paper here
  • Kupriyanova, Larissa A.;Andrén, Claes;Nilson, Göran 1995. Distribution of different chromosomal forms of Lacerta vivipara in the Baltic Sea basin. Memoranda Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica 71 (3-4): 96-97
  • Kupriyanova, Larissa; Alex Kuksin, Gaetano Odierna 2008. Karyotype, chromosome structure, reproductive modalities of three Southern Eurasian populations of the common lacertid lizard, Zootoca vivipara (Jacquin, 1787). Acta Herpetologica 3 (2): 99-106
  • Kupriyanova, Larissa; T. Kirschey,W. Böhme 2017. Distribution of the Common or Viviparous Lizard, Zootoca vivipara (Lichtenstein, 1823) (Squamata: Lacertidae) in Central Europe and Re-Colonization of the Baltic Sea Basin: New Karyological Evidence. Russ. J. Herpetol. 24 (4): 311-317 - get paper here
  • Kwet, A. 2010. Reptilien und Amphibien Europas. Kosmos-Verlag, Stuttgart, 252 pp.
  • Kwet, Axel & Benny Trapp 2014. Liste der Reptilien Europas. Draco 15 (60): 72-79 - get paper here
  • Lác, J. & E. Kluch 1968. Die Bergeidechse der Ostslowakischen Tiefebene als selbständige Unterart Lacerta vivipara pannonica n. subsp. Zoologické Listy, 17 (2): 157-173 - get paper here
  • Langerwerf, B. 1975. Reptielen en amfibieen in Finland. Lacerta 34 (1): 4-7. - get paper here
  • Lantermann, W. & Lantermann, Y. 2010. Reptilien und Amphibien am Undelandsee in Süd-Norwegen – ökologische und pädagogische Aspekte. Reptilia (Münster) 15 (84): 68-71 - get paper here
  • Lauš, Boris 2016. New records of the Viviparous Lizard Zootoca vivipara (Lichtenstein, 1823) from Macelj Mountain, the northernmost part of its distribution range in Croatia. Natura Croatica - get paper here
  • Le Galliard, Jean-François; Paquet, Matthieu; Pantelic, Zorica; Perret, Samuel 2011. Effects of miniature transponders on physiological stress, locomotor activity, growth and survival in small lizards. Amphibia-Reptilia 32 (2): 177-183 - get paper here
  • Le Galliard, Jean-François; Patrick S. Fitze, Régis Ferrière and Jean Clobert 2005. Sex ratio bias, male aggression, and population collapse in lizards. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102: 18231-18236 - get paper here
  • Leptien, R. 2010. Die Waldeidechse. Reptilia (Münster) 15 (81): 80-82 - get paper here
  • Lindtke, D., W. Mayer & W. Böhme 2010. Identification of a contact zone between oviparous and viviparous common lizards (Zootoca vivipara) in central Europe: reproductive strategies and natural hybridization. Salamandra 46 (2): 73-82 - get paper here
  • Lochhaas, L., Pogoda, P., & Kupfer, A. 2021. An exceptionally high frequency of melanism in a population of viviparous lizards Zootoca vivipara in southwestern Germany. Salamandra 57 (3): 444-447 - get paper here
  • Malkmus, Rudolf 2013. Abtauchen unter Wasser als Fluchtstrategie der Bergeidechse. Terraria-Elaphe 2013 (4): 70-71 - get paper here
  • Marnell, F. 2002. The distribution and habitat of the common lizard, Lacerta vivipara Jacquin, in Ireland. Bulletin of the Irish Biogeographical Society 26:75-82.
  • MASLAK, R. & L. PASKO 1997. Geschlechterverhältnis in einer Zootoca vivipara-Population im Flachlandmilieu der Umgebung Breslau. Die Eidechse 8 (2): 33-40 - get paper here
  • Massot, M. 2009. Impact du réchauffement climatique sur le fonctionnement de populations de lézards vivipares (Zootoca vivipara). Bull. Soc. Herp. France (130-131): 77-115 - get paper here
  • Mayer, W. 2015. Die Taxa der Familie Lacertidae – eine kommentierte Liste. The taxa of the family Lacertidae – an annotated list., 62 pp. - get paper here
  • Mayer, W. , W. Böhme, F. Tiedemann & W. Bischoff 2000. On viviparous populations of Zootoca vivipara (Jacquin, 1787) in south-eastern Central Europe and there phylogenetic relationship to neighbouring viviparous and South-west European oviparous populations (Squamata: Sauria: Lacertidae). Herpetozoa 13 (1/2): 59-69 - get paper here
  • Mayer, W., and Bischoff, W. 1996. Beiträge zur taxonomischen Revision der Gattung Lacerta (Reptilia: Lacertidae). Teil 1: Zootoca, Omanosaura, Timon und Teira als eigenständige Gattungen. Salamandra 32 (3): 163-170 - get paper here
  • Mayer, Werner; Böhme, Wolfgang 2000. A note on the validity and distribution of Zootoca vivipara sachalinensis. Casopis Narodniho Muzea Rada Prirodovedna 169(1-4):123-124.
  • Megía-Palma, Rodrigo; Alberto Jorge, and Senda Reguera 2017. Raman Spectroscopy Reveals the Presence of Both Eumelanin and Pheomelanin in the Skin of Lacertids. Journal of Herpetology Mar 2018, Vol. 52, No. 1: 67-73. - get paper here
  • Mendes, Joana; D. James Harris, Salvador Carranza, Daniele Salvi 2016. Evaluating the phylogenetic signal limit from mitogenomes, slow evolving nuclear genes, and the concatenation approach. New insights into the Lacertini radiation using fast evolving nuclear genes and species trees. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 100: 254–267, doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2016.04.016 - get paper here
  • Mezzasalma, M.; Capriglione, T.; Kupriyanova, L.; Odierna, G.; Pallotta, M.M.; Petraccioli, A.; Picariello, O.; Guarino, F.M. 2023. Characterization of Two Transposable Elements and an Ultra-Conserved Element Isolated in the Genome of Zootoca vivipara (Squamata, Lacertidae). Life 2023, 13, 637 - get paper here
  • MIGIANI, GUIDITTA; JOHN L. SMOUT, HANS RECKNAGEL & KATHRYN R. ELMER. 2022. A hypomelanistic common lizard (Zootoca vivipara) from the Alps. Herpetology Notes 15: 447–451. - get paper here
  • Milne-Edwards, M.H. 1829. Recherches zoologiques pour servir à l'histoire des lézards, extraites d'une monographie de ce genre. Ann. Sci. Nat. Paris 16: 50-89 - get paper here
  • Milto, K.D. 2020. Estimation of amphibian and reptile diversity in the Kurghalsky Wildlife Sanctuary. Proceedings of the Zoological Institute RAS, 324(2): 273–282 - get paper here
  • Milto, Konstantin D. 2014. Zootoca vivipara (common lizard) abnormal activity. Herpetological Review 45 (3): 511 - get paper here
  • Mizsei, Edvárd; Daniel Jablonski; Zsolt Végvári; Szabolcs Lengyel & Márton Szabolcs 2017. Distribution and diversity of reptiles in Albania: a novel database from a Mediterranean hotspot. Amphibia-Reptilia 38: 157-173 - get paper here
  • Mudde, P. 2008. Reptielen en amfibieën in Obergoms (Zwitserland). Lacerta 65 (6): 248-250 [2007] - get paper here
  • Murphy, Bridget F.; Michael B. Thompson 2011. A review of the evolution of viviparity in squamate reptiles: the past, present and future role of molecular biology and genomics. J Comp Physiol B 181:575–594 - get paper here
  • Necas, Petr; Modry, David & Zavadil, Vít 1997. Czech Recent and Fossil Amphibians and Reptiles. Edition Chimaira, Frankfurt, 94 pp.
  • Nigg, A. 1993. Die Reptilien des Fürstentums Liechtenstein mit Roter Liste der gefährdeten und seltenen Reptilien Liechtensteins. Amtlicher Lehrmittelverlag, Vaduz, Naturkundliche Forschung im Fürstentum Liechtenstein, 14: 1-63 - get paper here
  • Nöllert, A.; Nöllert, C. & Ritter, A. 1986. Einige Beobachtungen zur Herpetofauna der bulgarischen Schwarzmeerküste und Südwestbulgariens (Teil 2 - Die Reptilien). Herpetofauna 8 (44): 30-34 - get paper here
  • Odierna, G.; Heulin, B.; Guillaume, C-P.; Vogrin, N.; Aprea, G.; Capriglione, T.; Surget-Groga, Y.; Kupriyanova, L. 2001. Evolutionary and biogeographical implications of the karyological variations in the oviparous and viviparous forms of the lizard Lacerta (Zootoca) vivipara. Ecography 24 (3): 332-340 - get paper here
  • Ollonen, J., Khannoon, E. R., Macrì, S., Vergilov, V., Kuurne, J., Saarikivi, J., ... & Di-Poï, N. 2024. Dynamic evolutionary interplay between ontogenetic skull patterning and whole-head integration. Nature Ecology & Evolution, 1-16 - get paper here
  • Orlova, V. F.; Kozlovskii, A. I. 1996. Heterochromosomes and NOR-localization in the common lizard, Lacerta vivipara Jacquin, from Russia. Russ. J. Herpetol. 3 (2): 191-195 - get paper here
  • OSENEGG, K. 1991. Forschungsprojekt: Evolution der Viviparie bei Lacerta vivipara. Die Eidechse 2 (2): 10-13 - get paper here
  • OSENEGG, K. 1995. Untersuchungen zum Spektrum der Freßfeinde der Waldeidechse, Lacerta vivipara im Südwesten Frankreichs. Die Eidechse 6 (14): 6-16 - get paper here
  • OSENEGG, K. 1995. Populationsökologische Untersuchungen an der oviparen Form der Waldeidechse, Lacerta(Zootoca) vivipara JACQUIN, 1787, im Südwesten Frankreichs. Doctoral Thesis, University of Bonn,Germany; pp. 165.
  • Paulesu, Luana; Silke Jantra, Francesca Ietta, Rossana Brizzi, Anna Maria Avanzati, and Elisa Bigliardi. 2010. Cytokines in vertebrate reproduction. Herp. Cons. Biol. 5 (2) - get paper here
  • Peñalver-Alcázar, Miguel; Patrick Stefan Fitze, Cristina Romero Díaz 2015. Communal egg-laying in Zootoca vivipara (Jacquin, 1787) in the Central Pyrenees. Herpetology Notes 8: 4-7 - get paper here
  • Pereleshin S. D. and Terentjev P. V. 1963. Materials on herpetofauna of Sakhalin Island and Kuril Islands [in Russian]. Trudy Sakhalinsk KNII 14: 3 – 29 - get paper here
  • Pérez I de Lanuza G, Font E 2016. The evolution of colour pattern complexity: selection for conspicuousness favours contrasting within-body colour combinations in lizards. J Evol Biol. doi: 10.1111/jeb.12835 - get paper here
  • Petrov B. P., N. Tzankov, H. Strijbosch, G. Popgeorgiev, V. Beshkov 2006. The herpetofauna (Amphibia and Reptilia) of the Western Rhodopes mountain (Bulgaria and Greece). In: Beron P. (ed.). Biodiversity of Bulgaria. 3. Biodiversity of Western Rhodopes (Bulgaria and Greece) I. Pensoft & Nat. Mus. Natur. Hist., Sofia, pp. 863-912
  • Petzold, H.-G. 1978. Nigrinos von Lacerta vivipara aus der Umgebung Berlins (Reptilia: Sauria: Lacertidae). Salamandra 14 (2): 98-100 - get paper here
  • Pottier G., Paumier J.-M., Tessier M., Barascud Y., Talhoët S., Liozon R., D’Andurain P., Vacher J.-P., Barthe L., Heaulmé V., Esslinger M., Arthur C.-P., Calvet A., Maurel C. & Redon H. 2008. Atlas de répartition des reptiles et amphibiens de Midi-Pyrénées. Les atlas naturalistes de Midi-Pyrénées. Nature Midi-Pyrénées, Toulouse, 126 pp.
  • Reading, Christopher J.; Jofr?, Gabriela M. 2016. Habitat use by grass snakes and three sympatric lizard species on lowland heath managed using 'conservation grazing'. The Herpetological Journal 26 (2): 131-138 - get paper here
  • Recknagel, H., Kamenos, N. A., & Elmer, K. R. 2018. Common lizards break Dollo’s law of irreversibility: Genome-wide phylogenomics support a single origin of viviparity and re-evolution of oviparity. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 127, 579–588 - get paper here
  • Recknagel, Hans; Megan Layton, Ruth Carey, Henrique Leitão, Mark Sutherland, Kathryn R Elmer 2018. Melanism in common lizards (Squamata: Lacertidae: Zootoca vivipara): new evidence for a rare but widespread ancestral polymorphism. Herpetology Notes 11: 607-612 - get paper here
  • Remón, N., Vila, M., Galan, P. & Naveira, H. 2008. Isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in Iberolacerta monticola, and cross-species amplification in Iberolacerta galani and Zootoca vivipara. Molecular Ecology Resources 8: 1351-135 - get paper here
  • Rödel, M.-O. & R. BUSSMANN 1990. Die Amphibien und Reptilien der Julischen Alpen. Sauria 12 (4): 15-21 - get paper here
  • Rodriguez-Prieto, Ana; Giovanni Giovine; Lorenzo Laddaga; Samuele Ghielmi and Luca Cornetti 2017. Very similar, but not identical: morphological taxonomic identification to improve the resolution of fine-scale distribution of Zootoca (vivipara) carniolica. Amphibia-Reptilia - get paper here
  • Roitberg, Evgeny S.; Orlova, Valentina F.; Kuranova, Valentina N.; Bulakhova, Nina A.; Zinenko, Oleksandr I.; Ljubisavljevic, Katarina; Shamgunova, Regina R.; Carretero, Miguel A.; Clasen, Astrid; Fokt, Michael; Böhme, Wolfgang 2011. Inter-observer and intra-observer differences in measuring body length: a test in the common lizard, Zootoca vivipara. Amphibia-Reptilia 32 (4): 477-484 - get paper here
  • Rovatsos, Michail; Jasna Vukić, Marie Altmanová, Martina Johnson Pokorná, Jiří Moravec and Lukáš Kratochvíl 2016. Conservation of sex chromosomes in lacertid lizards. Molecular Ecology, DOI: 10.1111/mec.13635 - get paper here
  • San-Jose, Luis M; Katleen Huyghe; Johan Schuerch ; Patrick S Fitze 2017. More melanized males bite stronger but run slower: potential performance trade-offs related to melanin-based coloration . Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 122 (1): 184–196 - get paper here
  • Schlüter, U. 2011. Die Lacertiden Andorras. Die Eidechse 22 (3): 83-92 - get paper here
  • Schmidtler, J.F. & W. Böhme 2011. Synonymy and nomenclatural history of the Common or Viviparous Lizard, by this time: Zootoca vivipara (Lichtenstein, 1823). Bonn zoological Bulletin 60 (2): 214–228
  • SCHMIDTLER, JOSEF FRIEDRICH; WERNER MAYER & HANNELORE SCHMIDTLER 2011. Bemerkenswerte Funde von Zootoca vivipara carniolica und Podarcis muralis maculiventris im Pustertal (Italien, Südtirol). Zeitschrift für Feldherpetologie 18 (2) - get paper here
  • SCHUSTER, A. 2004. Zum Vorkommen der Pannonischen Waldeidechse Zootoca vivipara pannonica (LÁC & KLUCH, 1968) im Hanság (Burgenland, Österreich). Herpetozoa 17: - get paper here
  • Sindaco, R. & Jeremcenko, V.K. 2008. The reptiles of the Western Palearctic. Edizioni Belvedere, Latina (Italy), 579 pp. - get paper here
  • SINDACO, ROBERTO & EDOARDO RAZZETTI. 2021. An updated check-list of Italian amphibians and reptiles. Natural History Sciences 8(2): 35–46. - get paper here
  • Sobolenko, L.Yu., Nekrasova, O.D., Sorokina, S.I., Moroz, L.M. 2018. Current state of reptiles of western podillia. Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, 8(1): 706–711 - get paper here
  • Sos, T. 2008. Review of recent taxonomic and nomenclatural changes in European Amphibia and Reptilia related to Romanian herpetofauna. Herpetologica Romanica 2: 61-91
  • Speybroeck, Jeroen; Wouter Beukema, Christophe Dufresnes, Uwe Fritz, Daniel Jablonski, Petros Lymberakis, Iñigo Martínez-Solano, Edoardo Razzetti, Melita Vamberger, Miguel Vences, Judit Vörös0, Pierre-André Crochet 2020. Species list of the European herpetofauna – 2020 update by the Taxonomic Committee of the Societas Europaea Herpetologica.. Amphibia-Reptilia 41: 139-189 - get paper here
  • Stejneger, LEONHARD H. 1907. Herpetology of Japan and adjacent territory. Bull. US Natl. Mus. 58: xx, 1-577 - get paper here
  • Stork,J. 1838. Zootica [sic] vivipara. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 1838: 413 - get paper here
  • Strachinis, Ilias; Korina M. Karagianni, Martin Stanchev, and Nikola Stanchev 2019. No one ever noticed: First report of Zootoca vivipara (Lichtenstein, 1823) in Greece. Herpetology Notes 12: 53-56 - get paper here
  • Strahl, H. 1883. Die Entwicklungsvorgänge am vorderen Ende der Embryonen von Lacerta agilis und vivpara. Zool. Anz. 6: 17-19 - get paper here
  • STRIJBOSCH, H. & J.J. Van Gelder 1996. Brutpflege bei Lacerta agilis und Lacerta vivipara. Die Eidechse 7 (17): 24-29 - get paper here
  • Stumpel, Anton H.P.; Bert van der Werf, D.C. 2012. Reptile habitat preference in heathland: implications for heathland management. The Herpetological Journal 22 (3): 179-182 - get paper here
  • Surget-Groba, Y., Heulin, B., Ghielmi, S., Guillaume, C.-P., Vogrin, N. 2002. Phylogeography and conservation of the populations of Zootoca vivipara carniolica. Biol. Conserv. 106: 365-372 - get paper here
  • Surget-Groba, Y., Heulin, B., Guillaume, C.P., Puky, M., Semenov, D., Orlova, V., Kupriyanova, L., Ghira, I., Smajda, B. 2006. Multiple origins of viviparity, or reversal from viviparity to oviparity? The European common lizard (Zootoca vivipara, Lacertidae) and the evolution of parity. Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 87: 1-11 - get paper here
  • Surget-Groba, Yann; Benoıt Heulin, Claude-Pierre Guillaume, Roger S. Thorpe, Larissa Kupriyanova, Nusa Vogrin, Robert Maslak, Stephano Mazzotti, Marton Venczel, Ioan Ghira, Gaetano Odierna, Olga Leontyeva, Jean Claude Monney, and Nicolas Smith 2001. Intraspecific Phylogeography of Lacerta vivipara and the Evolution of Viviparity. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution<br />18 (3): 449–459 - get paper here
  • Szczerbak, N.N. 2003. Guide to the Reptiles of the Eastern Palearctic. Krieger, Malabar, FL, 260 pp. - get paper here
  • Szűcs B, Horváth GF, Purger JJ 2022. New record of the viviparous lizard Zootoca vivipara (Jacquin, 1787) in Hungary. Herpetozoa 35: 21-23 - get paper here
  • Tabachishin V. G., Yermokhin M. V. 2020. Current Distribution and Some Features of the Biology of the Common Lizard – Zootoca vivipara (Lichtenstein, 1823) (Lacertidae, Reptilia) in the Saratov Region. Current Studies in Herpetology 20 (1-2): 61 - get paper here
  • Takeuchi, Hirohiko; Mizuki Takeuchi, and Tsutomu Hikida 2013. Extremely Low Genetic Diversity in the Japanese Population of Zootoca vivipara (Squamata: Lacertidae) Revealed by Mitochondrial DNA. Current Herpetology Feb 2013, Vol. 32, No. 1: 66-70. - get paper here
  • Tania Rodríguez-Díaz, Félix González, Xiang Ji, Florentino Braña 2010. Effects of incubation temperature on hatchling phenotypes in an oviparous lizard with prolonged egg retention: are the two main hypotheses on the evolution of viviparity compatible? Zoology 113 (1): 33-38 - get paper here
  • THOMAS, OLIVER; STEVEN J. R. ALLAIN & PAUL SAGAR 2020. Predation and ingestion of a viviparous lizard (Zootoca vivipara) by the common wall lizard (Podarcis muralis) in England. Herpetological Bulletin 152: - get paper here
  • Török, Zsolt 2010. GIS technique used for managing data on distribution in Romania of the species beloging to fam. Lacertidae. Sc. Ann. Danube Delta Institute (Tulcea, Romania) 16: 71-84
  • Trakimas, G. 2005. Geographic distribution and status of sand lizard (Lacerta agilis) and common lizard [Lacerta (Zootoca) vivipara] in Lithuania. Acta Zoologica Lituanica 15(4):372-375. - get paper here
  • Trutnau, L. 1975. Europäische Amphibien und Reptilien. Belser Verlag, Stuttgart 212 pp.
  • Uhrin, Marcel; Peter Havaš, Martin Minařík, Karel Kodejš, Imrich Bugoš, Stanislav Danko, Tomáš Husák, Daniel Koleska and Daniel Jablonski 2016. Distribution updates to amphibian and reptile fauna for the Republic of Macedonia. Herpetology Notes 9: 201-220 - get paper here
  • Unknown author 2007. Karyological investigations of populations of the lizard Zootoca vivipara (Juaquin, 1787) from the Baltic Sea basin (western region of Russia) [in Russian]. Tsitologiia 49(7): 601-606
  • Vacheva, Emiliya 2018. First records of keratophagy in Zootoca vivipara (Lichtenstein, 1823) (Reptilia: Lacertidae) suggest a common occurrence in free-ranging populations. Herpetology Notes 11: 963-965 - get paper here
  • Vercken, E.; Sinervo, B. & Clobert, J. 2008. Colour variation in female common lizards: why we should speak of morphs, a reply to Cote et al. J. Evol. Biol. 21: 1160–1164 - get paper here
  • Vroonen, Jessica, Bart Verbust and Raoul Van Damme. 2013. Melanin-based colouration as a potential indicator of male quality in the lizard Zootoca vivipara (Squamata: Lacertidae). Amphibia-Reptilia 34 (4): 539-549 - get paper here
  • Wang, Kai; Jinlong Ren, Hongman Chen, Zhitong Lyu, Xianguang Guo Ke Jiang, Jinmin Chen, Jiatang Li, Peng Guo, Yingyong Wang, Jing Che 2020. The updated checklists of amphibians and reptiles of China. Biodiversity Science 28 (2): 189-218 - get paper here
  • Wells,W. 1846. Notice of a black lizard taken in Chesire. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist. (1) 17: 449-450 - get paper here
  • Werner, F. 1897. Die Reptilien und Amphibien Österreich-Ungarns und der Occupationsländer. Wien: Pichler - get paper here
  • Wrangel, R. 2006. Eine ungewöhnliche Färbungsvariante der Waldeidechse, Zootoca vivipara (Jacquin, 1787) aus Schleswig-Holstein Die Eidechse 17(1): 14-17. - get paper here
  • Yartsev V. V., Kuranova V. N., Absalyamova E. N. 2019. Male Reproductive Cycle in a Population of the Common Lizard Zootoca vivipara (Squamata, Lacertidae) from Southeast of Western Siberia. Current Studies in Herpetology 19 (1-2): 56 - get paper here
  • Yurchenko, Andrey A; View Hans Recknagel, Kathryn R Elmer 2019. Chromosome-level assembly of the common lizard (Zootoca vivipara) genome. bioRxiv 520528 - get paper here
  • Žagar, A., A. Vrezec & M. A. Carretero 2017. Do the thermal and hydric physiologies of Zootoca (vivipara) carniolica (Squamata: Lacertidae) reflect the conditions of its selected microhabitat? Salamandra 53 (1): 153-159 - get paper here
  • ZAUNER, J. 2021. Auf Reptiliensuche im Soca-Tal (Slowenien). Sauria 43 (1): 2-8 - get paper here
  • ZAWADZKI, M. 2017. Von Liebe, Essen und nassen Füssen – Beobachtungen an der Waldeidechse, Zootoca vivipara (LICHTENSTEIN, 1823) . Die Eidechse 28 (1): 30-31 - get paper here
  • Zawadzki, M. & W. Bischoff 2006. Zootoca vivipara (Jacquin, 1787) - Die Waldeidechse - Das Reptil des Jahres 2006 Die Eidechse 17(1): 18-26. - get paper here
  • ZEHLIUS, JULIA 2011. Winterquartier von Waldeidechsen (Zootoca vivipara) in einer ehemaligen Kiesgrube bei Zülpich-Geich (NRW). Zeitschrift für Feldherpetologie 18 (2) - get paper here
  • Zhao, Kentang;Bi, Junhuai 1995. The first record of four species of amphibians and reptiles in inner Mongolia and its significance on the Zoogeographical division. Acta Herpetologica Sinica 4/5: 102-104
  • Zhao, Wen-ge; Xia, Yu-guo; Liu, Lin-lin; Zhao, Feng; Xie, Zhi-gang. 2006. Analysis on karyotype of Lacerta vivipara from Heilongjiang province. Sichuan Journal of Zoology 25 (2):234-237. [In Chinese] - get paper here
External links  
Is it interesting? Share with others:

Please submit feedback about this entry to the curator